Charge pump with perfect current matchingcharacteristics n phase-locked
Conventional CMOS charge pump circuits have some currentmismatching characteristics. The current mismatch
the chargepump in the
generates a phase offset, which increases spursin the PLL output signals. In particular, it reduces the lockingrange
wide range PLLs with a dual loop scheme.
new chargepump circuit with perfect current matching characteristics isproposed.
using an error amplifier and reference currentsources, one can acheve a charge pump with good currentmatching characteristics. It shows nearly perfect current matchingcharacteristics over the whole VCO input range, and the amount
the reference spur is
-75dBc in the
output signal. Thecharge pump circuit is implemented in a
charge pump is widely used in modem phase-locked loops (PLL) for a low cost
solution. Having a neutralstate, an ideal charge pump combined with a phase/frequencydetector (PIFD) provides an infinite DC gain with passive filters,which results in the unbounded pull-in range for second andhigher order PLLs if not limited by the voltage controlled oscilla-tor (VCO) input range
long as the PED and the chargepump are ideal, zero static phase error can be obtained.
charge pump, in general, shows nonideal characteristics whenimplemented in a circuit and its practical issues need to be consid-ered in the design of the PLLs. One of the issues in the chargepump design is the current mismatch. In this Letter we considerthe effects of the phase offset caused by the current mismatch andpropose a new charge pump circuit with nearly perfect currentmatching characteristics.
Proposed charge pump circuit
charge pump output voltage,
charge pump output voltage,
Charge pump current matching characteristic
Conventional charge pump
Proposed charge pump
CMOS charge pumps usually have UP andDOWN switches implemented with a PMOS FET and an NMOSFET, respectively. The conventional CMOS charge pump circuitshave some current mismatching characteristics due to the differ-
ence between the drain-source voltage of the PMOS and
FETs. The current mismatch of the charge pump
gen-erates a phase offset which increases spurs in the RLL output sig-nals.
the phase offset reduces the locking range in the widerange PLL with the dual loop scheme frequency locking loop andphase locking loop, especially. When the current rnismatch occursin the charge pump, the amount of the phase offset is given bywhere
are the phase offset, the turn-ontime of the PED, the reference clock period, the charge pump cur-rent and the current mismatch
the charge pump, respectively.The amount of reference spur,
n the third order
is givenapproximately bywhere
is the resistor value in the loop filter,
is the VCOgain,
is the reference frequency for the PED and
s the fre-quency of the pole in the loop filter [l].
shown in eqn. 1, tominimise the phase offset, one should reduce the tum-on time ofthe PED and the current mismatch.
turn-on time of the P/FD, however, is needed a little to eliminate the dead-zone.
have to reduce the current mismatch as small as possible. In thisLetter we propose a new charge pump circuit with nearly perfectcurrent matching characteristics as shown inFig. 1.For the con-ventional charge pumps, by enlarging the output impedance of thecurrent source, the sourcingkinking current matching is improved.This method, however, cannot produce perfect current matchingcharacteristics because
the sizable output impedance of thepractical devices used in the circuit. In the proposed charge pump,by using an error amplifer, the voltage
at the node
ofthe current mirror
follows the voltage
at thenode CPOUT
the charge pump (M1
a result, thevoltage
is equal to the voltage
s long as the ampli-fier maintains a high enough gain. For
if the DOWN and the
ignal are high,then
and if the DOWN and the
signal are low,then
we can make the sinking current
equal thesourcing current
In this way, one can achieve nearly perfectsourcdsinking current matching characteristics regardless of thecharge pump output voltages.
Reference spur against current mismatch
shows the current variations against the output voltagevariations
the charge pump circuit. For the conventional chargepump, perfect current matching occurs only when the output volt-age of the charge pump, that is the input voltage of the VCO,
near the centre of the supply voltage.
the output voltage
nearthe supply voltage or the ground, the sourcinghking current dif-ference is relatively large. For the proposed charge pump, thesourcingkinking current matching is nearly perfect. For the samesize of the transistors used
the circuit, the maThum difference