: Globalization hasstrengthened the role of theMediterranean in internationalmaritime transport of goods.
However, trafc growth hasmainly involved transit ows,
ows now make up less thana quarter of the total. Fore
casts for the coming 15 yearssuggest that this trend islikely to continue, thus limiting Euro-Mediterranean coopera
tion. Moreover, some activities(especially transshipment) areexpected to witness increasing competition between northernand southern ports in the
Mediterranean. In light of thisreality and the growing pres-
ence of Gulf and Asian playersin southern port infrastruc
tures, the EU maritime policy
towards the Mediterranean willhave to be redesigned.
Mediterranean Policy Program—Series on the Region and the Economic Crisis
Maritime Transport and RegionalCooperation in the Mediterranean Basin
by Franco Zallio
1744 R Street NWWashington, DC 20009T 1 202 745 3950F 1 202 265 1662E email@example.com
Prepared in Partnership with Paralleli (Turin) January 2011
In the decade preceding the interna-tional economic crisis, the volume o goods transported within the Mediter-ranean region expanded by 5 percenta year. The growth o goods loaded oncontainer ships was particularly high(+10 percent a year) as well as thato liquid bulk (+7 percent a year).
Yearly increase in other transportcomponents has been more limited:+5 percent or goods embarked onroll-on, roll-o transport (Ro-Ro) and+3 percent or dry bulk.
Adopting the amiliar distinctionbetween bulk (both liquid and solid)and non-bulk (containers, Ro-Ro),the highest growth appears to haveoccurred or non-bulk. Within thiscategory, container transport hasdeveloped in a manner ar superiorto Ro-Ro transport. This has strongimplications or the direction o ows:Ro-Ro routes are in act intra-Medi-terranean, north-south as much aseast-west, while large container shipsmainly transit in the Mediterranean,moving east-west, rom Asia towardsnorthern European ports.
Liquid bulk mainly includes oil, gas, and chemicals.
Dry bulk mainly includes cereals, coal, and other miner
Thereore, the growth o shippingvolumes in the Mediterranean hasbeen dominated by transit ows ratherthan by trafc ows between coun-tries bordering the Mediterranean,reecting slow progress o economicregionalism in the ace o the rapidprogress o globalization. In 2007 —prior to the international economiccrisis — intra-Mediterranean trafcrepresented only 24 percent o totalnon-bulk trafc.
O this fgure, 16percent o non-bulk trafc was madeup by EU-Mediterranean (EUM)-EUM ows, 7 percent by southeastMediterranean (SEM)-EUM ows(mainly north to south), and only 1percent by SEM-SEM ows. Amongextra-Mediterranean trafc, Asiadominates at 29 percent o total: 26percent is made up o EU-Asia owsand the remaining 3 percent is madeup o SEM-Asia ows and o thestill limited Asia-sub-Saharan Aricaows. As paradoxical as it may seem,the development o trafc in theMediterranean has contributed to theeconomic integration between Asiaand Europe more than it has contrib-uted to integration among economiesbordering the Mediterranean.
The analysis of this brief focuses on non-bulk trafcgiven that bulk trafc, both liquid and solid, is stronglylinked to sectorial factors such as development in oilmarket, cereals market, and steel production.