Encyclopedia of the Central Intelligence Agency
Copyright © 2003 by W. Thomas Smith, Jr.All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage orretrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact:Facts On File, Inc.132 West 31st StreetNew York NY 10001
Libraryof Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Smith, W. Thomas.Encyclopedia of the Central Intelligence Agency / by W. Thomas Smithp. cm.Includes bibliographical references.ISBN 0-8160-4666-2 (hardcover) ISBN 978-1-4381-3018-7 (e-book)1. United States. Central Intelligence Agency—Encyclopedias.I. TitleUB251.U5 S632003327.1273
003—dc212002029951Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities forbusinesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Departmentin New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755.You can ﬁnd Facts On File on the World Wide Web athttp://www.factsonﬁle.comText and cover design by Cathy RinconIllustrations by Sholto AinsliePrinted in the United States of AmericaVB TB 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1This book is printed on acid-free paper.
This encyclopedia is dedicated toCIA Operations Ofﬁcer Johnny Michael “Mike” Spann,aformer captain of U.S. Marines andthe ﬁrst American killed in combatduring the war against terrorism,November 2001.It is also for Dad,the late William Thomas “Bill” Smith,and for my brother,the late Michael Robert Smith.