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Concept Measure Supported Aesthetics Ontology Construction for Videos

Concept Measure Supported Aesthetics Ontology Construction for Videos

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Published by ijcsis
Entertainment plays a vital role in human life. Multimedia conquers top position in the entertainment world. Video stands first among the multimedia entertainment. The rapid growth of the videos has resulted in the emergence of numerous multimedia repositories that require efficient and effective video storage, semantic annotation, indexing and retrieval systems. The introduction of ontologies in multimedia retrieval system can improve the precision and recall rate effectively. The performance of the annotation and the retrieval system increases with the support of the domain ontology. Most of the video annotation, indexing and the retrieval systems focus on the semantic concepts like objects, people, location, events, actions etc. But most of the multimedia systems are filled with human and their emotions. Any multimedia system like cinema, news videos, sports videos, and any domestic functional videos tries to capture the emotions of the human involved in the occasion. A video retrieval system will be complete if the system identifies, captures and represents the emotions of the humans. This paper focus on identification and representation of human emotions and the intensity of the emotions are represented using the fuzzy logic. The concept of Navarasra has been brought in to video retrieval system to classify the human emotions. The proposed approach is generic and flexible. It is designed and constructed for all videos where human beings and their emotions are been captured. A practical implementation is done using Protégé as an Ontology developing tool.
Entertainment plays a vital role in human life. Multimedia conquers top position in the entertainment world. Video stands first among the multimedia entertainment. The rapid growth of the videos has resulted in the emergence of numerous multimedia repositories that require efficient and effective video storage, semantic annotation, indexing and retrieval systems. The introduction of ontologies in multimedia retrieval system can improve the precision and recall rate effectively. The performance of the annotation and the retrieval system increases with the support of the domain ontology. Most of the video annotation, indexing and the retrieval systems focus on the semantic concepts like objects, people, location, events, actions etc. But most of the multimedia systems are filled with human and their emotions. Any multimedia system like cinema, news videos, sports videos, and any domestic functional videos tries to capture the emotions of the human involved in the occasion. A video retrieval system will be complete if the system identifies, captures and represents the emotions of the humans. This paper focus on identification and representation of human emotions and the intensity of the emotions are represented using the fuzzy logic. The concept of Navarasra has been brought in to video retrieval system to classify the human emotions. The proposed approach is generic and flexible. It is designed and constructed for all videos where human beings and their emotions are been captured. A practical implementation is done using Protégé as an Ontology developing tool.

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Concept Measure Supported Aesthetics OntologyConstruction for Videos
Dr Sunitha AbburuProfessor & Director, Department of Computer ApplicationsAdhiyamaan College of EngineeringHosur, pin-635109, Tamilnadu, India.ausunithaa@yahoo.co.in
 Abstract
 — 
Entertainment plays a vital role in human life.Multimedia conquers top position in the entertainment world.Video stands first among the multimedia entertainment. Therapid growth of the videos has resulted in the emergence of numerous multimedia repositories that require efficient andeffective video storage, semantic annotation, indexing andretrieval systems. The introduction of ontologies in multimediaretrieval system can improve the precision and recall rateeffectively. The performance of the annotation and the retrievalsystem increases with the support of the domain ontology. Mostof the video annotation, indexing and the retrieval systems focuson the semantic concepts like objects, people, location, events,actions etc. But most of the multimedia systems are filled withhuman and their emotions. Any multimedia system like cinema,news videos, sports videos, and any domestic functional videostries to capture the emotions of the human involved in theoccasion. A video retrieval system will be complete if the systemidentifies, captures and represents the emotions of the humans.This paper focus on identification and representation of humanemotions and the intensity of the emotions are represented usingthe fuzzy logic. The concept of Navarasra has been brought in tovideo retrieval system to classify the human emotions. Theproposed approach is generic and flexible. It is designed andconstructed for all videos where human beings and theiremotions are been captured. A practical implementation is doneusing Protégé as an Ontology developing tool.
 
 Keywords-component; Video Semantics, Concept measures,Ontology, Retrieval, Human Emotions.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
Entertainment plays a vital role in the human life.Multimedia plays an important role in the entertainment world.Video systems stand first in multimedia presentations. Thereason why a lot of research work, in the area of multimedia, iscarried out on video data compared with other multimedia datatypes is twofold. First, video contains audio, visual, textinformation etc. It is the most powerful and at the same timemost complex, voluminous, unformatted, and unstructured of all media used for conveying information. Hence, representingvideo information to enable effective and efficient retrieval isan interesting problem. Second, news videos, cinema videosand the resent trend of capturing any occasion, function, eventin videos, raises the demand for the efficient video storage,semantic annotation, indexing and retrieval systems. Videoretrieval systems which focus on the low level features andignore the semantic are less efficient and effective. In order toimprove the effectiveness and the efficiency of the videoretrieval system video semantics should be identified,represented and must be used during video object retrieval. Thesemantic annotation generation can be manual or automated.The annotation generation system and the retrieval systemperformance increases by considering the ontology. Ontologyplays a vital role in artificial intelligence, semantic web,software engineering, information retrieval, knowledgerepresentation, knowledge sharing, knowledge integration,knowledge reuse, and so on. It is a well known fact that theperformance of the annotation and the retrieval systemincreases with the support of the domain ontology. Theintroduction of ontologies in multimedia retrieval system canimprove the precision and recall rate effectively. Focusing onthe completeness and the effectiveness of the video retrievalsystem raises the need for multiple sub ontologies byconsidering the various aspects of the video semantics. Theliterature shows that most of the video annotation, indexing andthe retrieval systems focus on the semantic concepts likeobjects, people, location, events, actions etc. But most of thevideos are filled with human and their emotions. Anymultimedia system like cinema, news, sports, and any domesticfunctional videos tries to capture the emotions of the humaninvolved in the occasion. A video retrieval system will becomplete if the system identifies, captures and represents theemotions of the humans and the intensity of the emotions.
Intense understanding of the user’s perspective and their 
expectations towards the video retrieval system is essential.The user queries can be pertaining to the human emotions andthe intensity of the emotions involved in the video. This paperfocus on identification and representation of human emotionsand the intensity of the emotions are represented using thefuzzy logic.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Literature surveyreport is in section 2. Section 3 discusses the proposed methodfor identification and representation of human emotions andtheir intensities. In section 4, we present a practicalimplementation and experimental results on aesthetic ontologyconstruction. Finally, we conclude with a summary and futurework in section 5.II.
 
R
ELATED WORK
What is an ontology, the answer is twofold as given in [1],philosophical and computing. In the context of 
 
philosophy,Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being,
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 9, December 20104http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
existence or reality, as well as the basic categories of beingand their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the majorbranch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology dealswith questions concerning whether entities exist or can be saidto exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within ahierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities anddifferences. In the context of computer and informationsciences [2], an ontology is an explicit specification of aconceptualization. An ontology defines a set of representational primitives with which to model a domain of knowledge or discourse. The representational primitives aretypically classes (or sets), attributes (or properties), andrelationships (or relations among class members). Thedefinitions of the representational primitives includeinformation about their meaning and constraints on theirlogically consistent application. This set of objects, and thedescribable relationships among them, are reflected in therepresentational vocabulary with which a knowledge-basedprogram represents knowledge. Ontology is a kind of conceptmodel that could describe system at the level of semanticknowledge. It aims to access knowledge in a domain in ageneral way and provides a common understanding forconcepts in the domain so as to realize knowledge sharing andreuse among different application programs and organizations.As a new kind of knowledge organization tool and anontological commitment is an agreement to use a definedvocabulary by a group of people agreed upon in a coherentand consistent manner. N. F. Noy, and D. L. McGuiness in [3]describe the need for ontology as:
 
To share common understanding of the structure of information among people or software agents.
 
To enable reuse of domain knowledge.
 
To make domain assumptions explicit.
 
To separate domain knowledge from the operationalknowledge.
 
To analyze domain knowledge.At present, the main methods of ontology construction are:TOVE, Skeletal, METHONTOLOGY, KACTUS, SENSUS,IDEF5 and Seven Steps method.
 
Ontology developmentprocess is an iterative process that will continue in the entirelife cycle of the Ontology. An ontology is typically built inmore-or-less the following manner. The basic steps forbuilding Ontology are [3]:
 
Determine the domain and scope of the ontology.
 
Consider reusing existing ontology.
 
Enumerate important terms in the ontology.
 
Define the classes and the class hierarchy.
 
Define the properties of classes
 — 
slots.
 
Define the facets of the slots.
 
Create instances.III.
 
H
UMAN
E
MOTION CONCEPTS AND CONCEPT MEASURES
 
Various multimedia applications like sports, news, cinemaor any video captured at a function/occasion tries to capturesthe emotions of the humans. All these applications need toretrieve the video objects based on the human emotions. Theproposed approach is generic flexible and not specific to anyvideo application. It is designed and constructed for all videoswhere human beings and their emotions are been captured. Insports video sports players, sponsor etc would like to see all thevideo objects where the audiences are happy, overwhelm, sadetc (score, out, amazing shots). In cinema the user would like towatch the video objects with emotions like of comedy, sad,compassion, pathetic, furious, anger, heroic, energy, terror,horror, astonishment,
 
surprise
 ,
tranquility etc. In news domain,the news reader would like to display the videos of the newsclippings pertaining to the emotions of the human asmentioned. Sports video ontology [4], the concept based videoretrieval system for sports video explore the method of constructing concept ontology for sports video by identifyingthe concepts, concept hierarchy and the relations ships. Theconcepts like events, actions, players etc are identified andrepresented in an ontology. The current research onconstruction of ontologies is focusing on identification of concepts like events, actions, objects, locations, and people.But most of the video retrieval requirements are pertaining tothe human and their emotions involved in the video. Semanticvideo retrieval efficiency can be increased by considering theemotions of the humans involved in the video. The semanticvideo retrieval system will be more effective, if the retrievalsystem supports the retrieval of video objects or images basedon the human emotions.
 A.
 
 Human Emotions
-
 Aesthetics
The ancient scriptures describe nine fundamental emotionsfrom which all complex emotions may be produced. Just asall shade of colors are produced from basic RGB-threeprimary colors. In the same way all emotions are said to bederived from principal emotions known as Navarasa (inSanskrit). Sanskrit, an ancient language of India, is also one of the oldest languages in the world. Sanskrit is a member of theIndo-European language family and is a classical language of India. The word Sanskrit is derived from 'sam' which means'together' and 'krtam' which means 'created'. 'Sanskrit' togethermeans completed, refined and perfected. Nava means 'Nine'and Rasa signifies 'mood,' 'emotion,' 'expression' or'sentiment.' The Navarasa - aesthetics in the scriptures refer tothe nine expressions that humans often show. The longstanding concept of Navarasa is a way to express the emotionsof human that is exceptionally original. The individuality of the characters is the element that each character is thepersonification of one rasa-emotion. Their nature, the intensityof their reactions, their strengths, their failings - all guided bythe rasa they represent, which in turn plays an important rolein Video semantic retrieval. Video objects which are retrievedbased on the Navarasa makes the retrieval system highlyefficient and the only one of its kind ever made. Navarasa isaccepted worldwide and been used in all art forms. Navarasaare the emotions that human show according to the situations.The Nine Moods - Aesthetics (Nava Rasa) are:
 
Shringar
 – 
Love, Attractiveness, Amour
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 9, December 20105http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
 
Hasya
 – 
Comic, Laughter, Mirth, Comedy
 
Karuna
 – 
Sadness, Kind-heartedness or Compassion,Mercy, Pathetic
 
Raudra
 – 
Furious, Anger, Fury
 
Veera
 – 
Heroic, Courage, Energy
 
Bhayanak 
 – 
Terrible, Fear, Terror, Horror
 
 Bibhatsam
- Vibhats , Disgusting, Odious
 
Adbhuta
 – 
Wonderment, Amazement, Astonishment,
 
Surprise
 
Shanta
 – 
Peace, tranquility.In addition to the nine Rasas, two more appeared later inliterature are,
Vātsalya
- Parental Love and Bhakti - SpiritualDevotion.NavaRasa plays a significant influence on Indian cinema. The
 Rasa
method of performance is one of the fundamentalfeatures that differentiate Indian cinema from that of theWestern world. In the
 Rasa
method, empathetic "emotions areconveyed by the performer and thus felt by the audience," incontrast to the Western Stanislavski method where the actormust become "a living, breathing embodiment of a character"rather than "simply conveying emotion."All videos which involve human beings implicitly convey theemotions. In order to build a more effective retrieval system,human aesthetics-emotions and the intensity of the emotionsshould be identified, represented, stored and should be usedduring the video object retrieval.The queries from different application domains that involvehuman emotions like:Sports: Show all incredible shots of Sachin.Cinema: Show all comedy clippings of Mr. Bean.News: Show all terrible scenes of xxx disaster, etc.
 B.
 
Concept Measure
All human emotions inhabit different levels of intensity orextent. Or the concept like beauty can be measured as morebeautiful, most beautiful, less beautiful, least beautiful. Theintensity of the emotion courage can be measured as less,good, very good,
 
incredibly courage. The intensity of theemotion is defined as Concept Measure. All degree adverbslike good, bad, high, low, very, most, more, less, incredibly,worst, bad, excellent, quickly, loudly, awfully, fairly, quite,really, extremely, pretty, fully, almost, little, too, partial,completely, adequately, immensely, perfectly, strongly etc areconcept measures. To describe the human emotions, eventsand actions more effectively concept measures are attached tothe concepts. This can be represented as, humans involved inthe video, emotions and the intensity of the emotions. Actionsand the intensity. Concept measures like easy, good, bad,worst, high, low etc are purely human judgment. And alwaysthere is a chance that two individuals may judge it differently.A particular scene may be too comedy to one individual whichis just comedy for other individual. The degree of judgmentvaries from one individual to other. The fuzziness involved inhuman judgment pertaining to the concept measures arerepresented using the fuzzy logic see figure 1 and 2. Conceptmeasures are ranked on a scale of 0 to 1. The descriptions(d) can be described using concept measure (cm) as:
Figure 1. Crisp SetsFigure 2. Fuzzy Sets
d1 = {(excellent, 1), (good, 0.75), (average, 0.5), (bad, 0.25),(worst, 0.0)}. d2 = {(very high, 1), (high, 0.8), (medium, 0.6),(low, 0.4), (very low, 0.2), (ground level, 0.0)}. The queriesfrom different application domains that have human emotionand the intensity of the emotions like:Sports: Show all excellent shots of Sachin.Cinema: Show all,
 
incredible comedy clippings Mr. Bean.News: Show most terrible scenes of xxx disaster, etc.IV.
 
A
 
P
RACTICAL
I
MPLEMENTATION
[5][6][7] [8] describes ontology tools. We have used Protégéas an Ontology developing tool to represent the humanemotion concepts. Protégé [9] was developed by
(http://protoge.stanford.edu) Mark Musen‘s group at Stanford
University. The human emotions are represented in theAesthetics ontology using Protégé. Aesthetics ontology andonto graph plug-in representation is shown in Fig.3, Fig.4, andFig.5. We selected OWL, as the ontology language, which isstandard ontology language recommended by W3C.
Figure 3. Aesthetics Ontology
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 9, December 20106http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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