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Impact of Guard Interval in Proposed MIMO-OFDM System for wireless communication

Impact of Guard Interval in Proposed MIMO-OFDM System for wireless communication

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Published by ijcsis
Alamouti’s space-time coding scheme for Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) system has drawn much attention in 4G wireless technologies. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a popular method for high data rate wireless transmission. OFDM may be combined with antenna arrays at the transmitter and receiver to increase the diversity gain and enhance the system capacity on time variant and frequency selective channels, resulting in Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) configuration. This paper explores varies physical layer research challenges in MIMO-OFDM system design including channel modeling, space time block code techniques, channel estimation and signal processing algorithms used for performing time and frequency synchronization in MIMO-OFDM system .The proposed system is simulated in matlab and analyzed in terms of BER with signals to noise ratio (SNR).The difference of BER for coded and uncoded MIMO system and also the impact of guard interval are simulated using different wireless channel.
Alamouti’s space-time coding scheme for Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) system has drawn much attention in 4G wireless technologies. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a popular method for high data rate wireless transmission. OFDM may be combined with antenna arrays at the transmitter and receiver to increase the diversity gain and enhance the system capacity on time variant and frequency selective channels, resulting in Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) configuration. This paper explores varies physical layer research challenges in MIMO-OFDM system design including channel modeling, space time block code techniques, channel estimation and signal processing algorithms used for performing time and frequency synchronization in MIMO-OFDM system .The proposed system is simulated in matlab and analyzed in terms of BER with signals to noise ratio (SNR).The difference of BER for coded and uncoded MIMO system and also the impact of guard interval are simulated using different wireless channel.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
8
 , No.
9
 , 2010
Impact of Guard Interval in Proposed MIMO-OFDMSystem for wireless communication
M.P.Chitra
Research Scholar, Sathyabama University,Chennai, India.chi_mp2003@yahoo.co.in
Dr.S.K. Srivatsa
Senior Professor, St.Joseph College of Engineering,Chennai, India.profsks@rediffmail.com
 Abstract
- Alamouti’s space-time coding scheme for Multi-InputMulti-Output (MIMO) system has drawn much attention in 4Gwireless technologies. Orthogonal frequency divisionmultiplexing (OFDM) is a popular method for high data ratewireless transmission. OFDM may be combined with antennaarrays at the transmitter and receiver to increase the diversitygain and enhance the system capacity on time variant andfrequency selective channels, resulting in Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) configuration. This paper explores variesphysical layer research challenges in MIMO-OFDM systemdesign including channel modeling, space time block codetechniques, channel estimation and signal processing algorithmsused for performing time and frequency synchronization inMIMO-OFDM system .The proposed system is simulated in matlab and analyzed in terms of BER with signals to noise ratio(SNR).The difference of BER for coded and uncoded MIMOsystem and also the impact of guard interval are simulated usingdifferent wireless channel.
 Keywords - Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO); orthogonal  frequency division multiplexing (OFDM); Bit error rate (BER); signals to noise ratio (SNR); Single input single output (SISO); space time block code (STBC)
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) andspace-time coding have been receiving increased attention dueto their potential to provide increased capacity for nextgeneration wireless systems. OFDM supports high data ratetraffic by dividing the incoming serial data stream into parallellow-rate streams, which are simultaneously transmitted onorthogonal sub-carriers[1]. For large enough and a sufficientlylarge guard interval, the channels as seen by each of the sub-carriers become approximately frequency flat and allow forhigh order modulation. Due to this desirable feature, OFDMhas been adopted in many commercial systems such as theIEEE 802.11a, ETSI HIPERLAN type2 wireless LAN systemsand DAB, DVB-T broadcasting systems.Space-time coding is a communication technique forwireless systems that realizes spatial diversity by introducingtemporal and spatial correlation into the signals transmittedfrom different transmits antennas. Many space-time trellis andblock codes have been proposed for flat fading channels. Mostsignificantly, Alamouti discovered a very simple space-timeblock code (STBC) for transmission with two antennasguaranteeing full spatial diversity and full rate. It lends itself tovery simple decoding and has been adopted in third generation(3G) cellular systems such as W-CDMA. Recently, manyliteratures proposed space-time block coding schemesapplicable to OFDM systems based on the Alamouti scheme[2]. When channel can be assumed to be approximatelyconstant during two consecutive OFDM symbol durations, theAlamouti scheme is applied across two consecutive OFDMsymbols and is referred to as the Alamouti STBC-OFDM orsimply A-STBC-OFDM.The combination of the multiple –input multiple output(MIMO) signal processing with orthogonal frequency –divisionmultiplexing (OFDM) communication system is considered asa promising solution for enhancing the data rates of the nextgeneration wireless communication systems operating infrequency – selective fading environments. The HighThroughput Task Group which establish IEEE 802.11nstandard is going to draw up the next generation wireless localarea network (WLAN) proposal based on the 802.11 a/g whichis the current OFDM- based WLAN standards . TheIEEE802.11n standard based on the MIMO OFDM systemprovides very high data throughput rate from the original datarate 54Mb/s to the rate in excess of 600 Mb/s because thetechnique of the MIMO can increase the data rate by extendingan OFDM –based system .However ,the IEEE 802.11nstandard also increases the computational and hardwarecomplexities greatly ,compared with the current WLANstandards .It is a challenge to realize the physical layer of theMIMO OFDM system with minimal hardware complexity andpower consumptionThe FFT/IFFT processor is one of the highestcomputational complexity modules in the physical layer of theIEEE 802.11n standard. If employing the traditional approachto solve the simultaneous multiple data sequences, several FFTprocessors are needed in the physical layer of a MIMO OFDMsystem. Thus the hardware complexity of the physical layer inMIMO OFDM system will be very high .This paper proposesan FFT processor with a novel multipath pipelined architectureto deal with the issue of the multiple data sequences for MIMOOFDM applications. The 128/64 FFT with 1-4 simultaneousdata sequences can be supported in our proposed processorwith minimal hardware complexity. Furthermore, the powerconsumption can also be saved by using higher radix FFTalgorithm.
25http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
8
 , No.
9
 , 2010
II.
 
C
HANNEL
M
ODELS
 
 A.
 
 Additive White Gaussian Noise channel
With the transmitted signal vector x, the received signalvector y is given by, y = x + n where ‘n’ represents additivewhite Gaussian noise vector. It follows the normal distributionwith mean
µ
and variance
σ
2.
)2 / )(exp()2( / 1)(
222
σ   µ πσ  
=
nn f 
(1)
 B.
 
Flat Fading channel model
It is modeled as, y= ax + n where a is the fadingcoefficients with PDF and n is the additive white Gaussiannoise vector.
)exp(2)(
2
aaa f 
=
 
.0
>
 fora
(2)
C.
 
Frequency selective fading channel
In this model the channel is considered as a multi-pathfading channel. It consists of multiple independent Rayleighfaders, which is modeled as complex-valued random processes.By assuming uniform antenna pattern and uniform distributedincident power, the received signal at the receiver can beexpressed as
+=
 j j
n xa y
*
(3)
where ‘n’ is the additive white Gaussian noise and ‘j’represents multi-path from transmitter.III.
 
MIMO
 
S
YSTEM
.
 A.
 
Space – Time Codes.
Space-time codes (STC) provide transmits diversity for theMulti-Input Multi-Output fading channel. There are two maintypes of STC’s namely space-time block codes (STBC) andspace-time trellis codes (STTC). Space-time block codesoperate on a block of input symbols, producing a matrix outputwhose columns represent time and rows represent antennas.Their main feature is the provision of full diversity with a verysimple decoding scheme. On the other hand, Space-time trelliscodes operate on one symbol at a time, producing a sequenceof vector symbols whose length represents antennas. Liketraditional TCM (Trellis Coded Modulation) for a single-antenna channel, Space-time trellis codes provide coding gain.Since they also provide full diversity gain, their key advantageover space-time block codes is the provision of coding gain [3].Their disadvantage is that they are extremely hard to designand generally require high complexity encoders and decoders.An STBC is defined by a p x n transmission matrix G,whose entries are linear combinations of x1,…xk and theirconjugates x1*,…,xk*, and whose columns are pair wise –orthogonal. When p = n and {xi } are real, G is a linearprocessing orthogonal design which satisfies the condition thatGT G = D, where D is the diagonal matrix with the (i,i)thdiagonal element of the form (l1i x12 +l2i x22+ … + lni xn2 ),with the coefficients l1i,l2i,…lni > 0. Without loss of generality, the first row of G contains entries with positivesigns. If not, one can always negate certain columns of G toarrive at a positive row.
    
=
1221
2
 x x x xG
 
    
=
1234 2143 3412 4321
4
 x x x x  x x x x  x x x x  x x x x G
(4)
We assume that transmission at the base-band employs asignal constellation A with 2b elements. At the first time slot,nb bits arrive at the encoder and select constellation signalsc1,…, cn. Setting xi = ci for i = 1…., n in G yields a matrix Cwhose entries are linear combinations of the ci and theirconjugates. While G contains the in determinates x1,…, xn, Ccontains specific c constellation symbols (or linearcombinations of them), which are transmitted from the nantennas as follows: At time t, the entries of row t of C aresimultaneously transmitted from the n antennas, with the ithantenna sending the ith entry of the row. So each row of Cgives the symbols sent at a certain time, while each column of C gives the symbols sent by a certain antenna.
 B.
 
 Receive Diversity.
The base-band representation of the classical two-branchMaximal Ratio Receive Combining (MRRC) scheme. At agiven time, a signal s0 is sent from the transmitter. The channelbetween the transmit antenna and the receive antenna zero isdenoted by h0 and between the transmit antenna and thereceive antenna one is denoted by h1 where h0 =
α
0 ej
θ
0 h1 =
α
1 ej
θ
1.Noise and interference are added at the two receivers. Theresulting received base band signals are r0 = h0 s0 + n0, r1 =h1 s1 + n1.Where n0 and n1 represent complex noise and interference.Assuming n0 and n1 are Gaussian distributed, themaximum likelihood decision rule at the receiver for thesereceived signals is to choose signal si if and only if (iff).
)1,1()0,0()1,1()0,0(
2222
ii
shshshsh
++
(5)
where d2(x, y) is the squared Euclidean distance betweensignals x and y calculated by the following expression:
))((),(
222
 y x y x y x
=
(6)
The receiver combining scheme for two-branch MRRC isas follows:
26http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
8
 , No.
9
 , 2010
)`,()1()`,()1(
02221200222120
i
sssk sssi
++++
α α α α 
(7)
The maximal-ratio combiner may then construct the signals0
, so that the maximum likelihood detector may produce s0
,which is a maximum likelihood estimate of s0.
C.
 
 Alamouti’s Transmit Diversity Scheme.1)
 
Two-Branch Transmit Diversity with One Receiver 
The base-band representation of the two-branch transmitdiversity scheme. The Encoding and Transmission Sequence ata given symbol period, two signals are simultaneouslytransmitted from the two antennas. The signal transmitted fromantenna zero is denoted by s0 and from antenna one by s1.During the next symbol period signal (-s1*) is transmitted fromantenna zero, and signal s0* is transmitted from antenna onewhere * is the complex conjugate operation. The encoding isdone in space and time (space-time coding) [4]. The encodingmay also be done in space and frequency. Instead of twoadjacent symbol periods, two adjacent carriers may be used(space-frequency).
TABLE I. E
NCODING TABLE
 
Antenna 0 Antenna 1
Time t S0 S1Time t+T -S1* S0*
2)
 
Transmit diversity with receiver diversity
It is possible to provide a diversity order of 2M with twotransmit and M receive antennas. For illustration, we discussthe special case of two transmit and two receive antennas indetail. The generalization to M receive antennas is trivial.The base band representations of the scheme with twotransmit and two receive antennas. The encoding andtransmission sequence of the information symbols for thisconfiguration is identical to the case of a single receiver.Similarly, for s1, using the decision rule is to choose signalsi iff 
)`,()1( )`,()1(
1222322212012223222120
i
sssk  sssi
++++ ++++
α α α α  α α α α 
(8)
The combined signals are equivalent to that of four branchMRRC,. Therefore, the resulting diversity order from the newtwo-branch transmit diversity scheme with two receivers isequal to that of the four-branch MRRC scheme.It is interesting to note that the combined signals fromthe two receive antennas are the simple addition of thecombined signals from each receive antenna. Hence concludethat, using two transmit and M receive antennas, using thecombiner for each receive antenna and then simply add thecombined signals from all the receive antennas to obtain thesame diversity order as 2M- branch MRRC.
 D.
 
Channel Estimation.1)
 
 Enhance Channel Estimation
Frequency domain and is written in matrix notation
 N SH 
+=
(9)
Where Y is the Fourier Transform of y, S is the Fouriertransforms of S, N is the Fourier Transform of n and H is theFourier transform of h. H can also be represented as
h H 
.
=
(10)
Where F is N x N is the unitary FFT matrix. Therefore Ycan be represented as,
 N hSF 
+=
.
(11)
 N Qh
+=
(12)
Where Q = X F.The estimated channel response in timedomain can be obtained by the LS estimator as,
QQQh
 H  H 
1
)
=
(12)
Where QH denotes the Hermitian transpose. The successfulimplementation of the estimator depends on the existence of the inverse matrix (Q H Q). If the matrix (Q H Q) is singular(or close to singular), then the solution does not exist (or is notreliable) [5]. But it is a rare case.
 E.
 
Training Sequence used.
To increase the performance of the channel estimation forOFDM systems in the presence of ISI, Kim and Stuberproposed this training sequence given by
=
0) / )2 / (2exp(. )(
2
 N n j A n X 
π 
 
 M n N n
ε ε 
(13)
 
 
where N is the set of sub-carrier odd indices, where M isthe set of sub-carrier odd indices.Transmitted data with pilot. It has alternative zeros. Bydoing so, the transformation of the training sequence in thetime domain has the special property that its first half isidentical to its second half, while the desirable peak-to-averagepower ratio of one is still retained. In our work, this trainingsequence is applied to the LS estimator for MIMO-OFDMsystems.
F.
 
Channel coefficients.
The Actual, estimated coefficients through least squareestimator and error between them. These Coefficients are
27http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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