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Hybrid Technique for Self Tuning PI Controller Parameters in HVDC Systems

Hybrid Technique for Self Tuning PI Controller Parameters in HVDC Systems

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Published by ijcsis
Nowadays, due to certain advantages, the HVDC systems are commonly used in long distance transmissions. The major drawback associated with HVDC system is that it takes a longer duration to return to its steady state value after the occurrence of a fault. In a HVDC system, when a fault occurs, the current and voltage will deviate from their normal range and PI controllers are used to maintain its current and voltage at the normal steady state value. Controller parameter tuning plays a significant role in maintaining the steady state current and voltage of a HVDC system. Here, we propose a hybrid technique to self tune the PI controller parameters. The proposed hybrid technique utilizes fuzzy logic and neural network to self tune the controller parameters. The fuzzy rules are generated using different combinations of current error, rate and combined gain. To train the neural network, different combinations of fuzzy gain, proportional gain and integral gain are used. The neural network is trained using a back propagation algorithm. By experimentation it is shown that the system that uses this method takes a very short time to return to its normal steady state. The implementation results show that the performance of the proposed hybrid technique is superior to that of both the self tuning techniques.
Nowadays, due to certain advantages, the HVDC systems are commonly used in long distance transmissions. The major drawback associated with HVDC system is that it takes a longer duration to return to its steady state value after the occurrence of a fault. In a HVDC system, when a fault occurs, the current and voltage will deviate from their normal range and PI controllers are used to maintain its current and voltage at the normal steady state value. Controller parameter tuning plays a significant role in maintaining the steady state current and voltage of a HVDC system. Here, we propose a hybrid technique to self tune the PI controller parameters. The proposed hybrid technique utilizes fuzzy logic and neural network to self tune the controller parameters. The fuzzy rules are generated using different combinations of current error, rate and combined gain. To train the neural network, different combinations of fuzzy gain, proportional gain and integral gain are used. The neural network is trained using a back propagation algorithm. By experimentation it is shown that the system that uses this method takes a very short time to return to its normal steady state. The implementation results show that the performance of the proposed hybrid technique is superior to that of both the self tuning techniques.

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Hybrid Technique for Self Tuning PI ControllerParameters in HVDC Systems
 
A.Srujana
Research ScholarJNT University, Hyderabadsrujanaphd@gmail.com
Dr. S.V.Jayaram Kumar
ProfessorJawaharlal Nehru Technological UniversityHyderabad
 Abstract
Nowadays, due to certain advantages, the HVDCsystems are commonly used in long distance transmissions. Themajor drawback associated with HVDC system is that it takes alonger duration to return to its steady state value after theoccurrence of a fault. In a HVDC system, when a fault occurs, thecurrent and voltage will deviate from their normal range and PIcontrollers are used to maintain its current and voltage at thenormal steady state value. Controller parameter tuning plays asignificant role in maintaining the steady state current andvoltage of a HVDC system. Here, we propose a hybrid techniqueto self tune the PI controller parameters. The proposed hybridtechnique utilizes fuzzy logic and neural network to self tune thecontroller parameters. The fuzzy rules are generated usingdifferent combinations of current error, rate and combined gain.To train the neural network, different combinations of fuzzygain, proportional gain and integral gain are used. The neuralnetwork is trained using a back propagation algorithm. Byexperimentation it is shown that the system that uses this methodtakes a very short time to return to its normal steady state. Theimplementation results show that the performance of theproposed hybrid technique is superior to that of both the self tuning techniques.
 Keywords- fuzzy logic; HVDC; neural network; fuzzy rules; proportional and integral gain.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Presently, due to economic, environmental, and politicallimitations which hinder the erection of large power plants andhigh voltage lines, increasing the power system capacity isoften difficult. Hence, to solve the above issues new solutionsare sought. One of the most promising solutions suggests thereplacement of conventional HVAC transmission technologiesby targeted deployment of HVDC (High Voltage DirectCurrent) ones [1]. Of late, there has been a significant increasein the HVDC systems that interconnect large power systemsoffering many technical and economic benefits [2].HVDC is a proven technology and the features presentedby it have made it more alluring than AC transmission forcertain applications for example long submarine cable linksand interconnection of asynchronous systems [1]. Fixed gainsPI controllers are commonly used by HVDC systems [3]. Theoperating in which a HVDC system can be designed arebipolar mode; mono-polar metallic return and mono-polarground return modes [5]. Charging the capacitance of atransmission line with alternating voltage
 
is not necessary for
 
HVDC, so it has the advantage of providing more efficientlong distance transmission [21]. System interconnection use of HVDC transmission link has not attracted much awareness[4]. In power transmission systems,
 
HVDC converters havethe unique virtues of large capacity and fast controllability[18].In recent years, because of the development of powerelectronics, an active role is played by HVDC transmissionlink based Voltage source converters (VSC), using self-commutated valves (IGBTs, IGCTs and GTOs) in improvingthe electricity transmission and distribution system [9]. VSC-HVDC system is one of  the most modern HVDC technologies,and it incorporates two VSCs, one function as a rectifier andthe other as an inverter [8].In power distribution and transmission systems, line toground, line to line, double line to ground, and three-phase toground are the possible faults [11]. The literature presents lotof fault detection techniques. The method based on thesequence components of the fundamental frequency of thepost-fault current and voltage is an example for this [14]. Ageneral Fault Detection and Diagnostic scheme consists of twophases, namely symptom generation and diagnosis
 
[1]. So asto accomplish this, by executing modern control strategies thepower system must be maintained at the preferred operatinglevel [7]. Contemporary controls which are based on ArtificialNeural Network, Fuzzy system and Genetic algorithm arefound to be quick, and reliable. Hence, they can be employedfor protection against the line faults [13].Generally, the controller is tuned adaptively to perform
 
thecontrolling effectively. However, because a single technique isdeployed for this purpose, the effectiveness remains achallenge as the necessity and complexity of HVDC systempeaks. To overcome this issue, in this paper, we propose ahybrid technique by means of which the PI controller thatcontrols the HVDC system is self tuned whenever a faultoccurs. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. SectionII reviews the related works briefly and section III details theproposed technique with sufficient mathematical models andillustrations. Section IV discusses implementation results andSection V concludes the paper.II.
 
R
ELATED WORKS
 Chi-Hshiung Lin [22] has discussed the difference betweentwo faults in an HVDC link. A misfire fault in the rectifier
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010139http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
valve and inverter valve are the two faults that have beencompared. A dynamic simulation analysis has disclosed thatthe resultant phenomena are not the same. A misfire fault inthe rectifier valve creates a substantial torsional torque in aturbine generator adjoining the inverter station whenever thenatural torsional modes are disrupted by the power disturbancewhich it induces on the rectifier side of system frequency.Conversely, a misfire fault in an inverter valve attempts tocreate commutation breakdown in converters which in turncauses HVDC link failure. HVDC link failure if it happensradically affects the rectifier and inverter sides of thegenerator.Vinod Kumar
et al.
[23] have presented a HVDCtransmission system which operates with speed and precisionin a weak ac system and they have analyzed the controlstrategy and performance of this system, which has beencontrolled by employing fuzzy. Under oscillations and hugedeviations of the input power, the system has been capable of feeding a weak or even dead network. The competence of thelink under a variety of disturbances was optimized with thehelp of the fuzzy logic-based control of the system.Fundamental building blocks that exist in a typical HVDCsystem have been made available by the proposed model foruse by individual users to build their own models.
 
Forsynchronizing the firing pulses to the HVDC converter, theDQ-type of phase-locked-loop presented has been a specificcontribution of the proposed method. Supplying a cleansinusoidal synchronizing voltage from a contaminated andharmonic imprecise commutation voltage has been madepossible by this gate-firing unit
.
The capability of the proposedfuzzy logic based HVDC system to operate steadily andrecover steadily in case of short circuit faults, and its obviousmerits have been proved by PSCAD/EMTDC basedsimulations.Mohamed Khatir
et al
. [24] have discussed that the relativestrength of the AC system which connects a HVDC link considerably affects its functioning. Yet, the relative strengthof the AC system compared to the capacity of the DC link hasa major effect on the interaction between the AC and DCsystems and the problems connected with it. In an HVDCinverter following AC system fault in line commutatedthyristor inverter feeding a weak AC system, the effect of theDC control on recovery from AC system fault producedcommutation failures has been investigated by the proposedmethod. The study system has been subjected to the ACsystem fault known as Single phase ground fault. UsingMATLAB Simulink, simulation studies have been performed.
 
Mohamed Khatir
et al
. [25] have discussed that HVDCconverter topology type capacitor commutated converter(CCC) are suitable for utilization in long distance transmissionvia cables. The proposed method has the potential to beemployed in HVDC transmission across large bodies of water.The proposed technology of the Capacitor CommutatedConverters (CCC) has been presented and its advantages inhigh power transmission have been illustrated. By employingPSCAD/EMTDC the transient performance evaluations hasbeen presented. From the primary CIGRE HVDC Benchmark model the system has been derived. The results have revealedthe enhanced performance of a CCC link in terms of increasedtransmission capacity and enhanced stability of the ACnetwork, when it is linked to a very weak AC system.Bandarabadi
et al
. [9] have discussed the fault-ride throughcapability improvement possibility through utilization of VSC-HVDC link to transmission network in connection of 160 MWwind farm. 80 individual 2 MW permanent magnetsynchronous generators that comprise the 160 MW wind farmhas been divided into 4 groups with 40 MW nominal powers.At the time of wind speed fluctuations and after repairing thegrid side faults the voltage at the transmission network terminal has to be re-instituted with reduced power losses.Supporting the voltage of transmission network side has alsobeen vital for the VSC-HVDC at the time of short circuitfaults in the main grid which is also called as fault ride-through capability improvement. Both uneven speedoperations in wind farm network and fault ride-throughcapability improvement in transmission network have beenstressed by the proposed technique. By means of simulationcarried out in the PSCAD/EMTDC software, the behavior of the wind farm, transmission voltage and dc voltage for diversechanges in wind speed and three-phase short circuit fault havebeen studied.
 
The simulation results have proved theperformance of the connection method and the improvementin the fault ride- through capability.Khatir Mohamed
et al.
[26] have presented the steady-stateand dynamic performances obtained during step changes of the active and reactive powers, balanced and unbalanced faultsin a HVDC transmission system that is based on VSC. It hasbeen shown that fast and satisfactory dynamic responses of theproposed system have been provided by the proposed controlstrategies in all cases. It has been evident from the simulation,that the VSC-HVDC is capable of performing fast and bi-directional power transfer. It has also been evident that, exceptfor a small fluctuation, the transmitted power can be keptconstant at the time of a single-phase fault. Conversely, at thetime of a three-phase fault, the power flow by the DC link hasbeen significantly reduced by the voltage at the converterterminals. There has been a quick recovery to usual operationafter the fault has been cleared.Lidong zhang
et al.
[27] have presented a control method of grid-connected voltage-source converters (VSCs). Thismethod has been expected to be of most significance in high-voltage dc (HVDC) applications, though it can be usuallyapplied for all grid-connected VSCs. The proposed methodhas made use of the internal synchronization mechanism in acsystems, in principle, similar to the operation of a synchronousmachine which is different from the preceding controlmethods. By employing this type of power-synchronizationcontrol the instability due to a standard phase-locked loop in aweak ac-system connection has been prevented by the VSC.Furthermore, a VSC terminal has been capable of providingstrong voltage support to weak ac system like a normalsynchronous machine. By analytical models and timesimulations the control method has been proved.III.
 
N
EURO
-F
UZZY SELF TUNING
PI
CONTROLLER IN
HVDCIn this paper, for tuning PI controller parameters in HVDCsystem both normal and abnormal conditions are considered.During normal condition the current remains at its reference
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010140http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
value and when a fault occurs in the system, the current valueincreases and at that moment the PI controller parameters aretuned and this makes the current to remain at its referencevalue. Here we use a hybrid technique to tune the PI controllerparameters in HVDC. First the error and rate values arecalculated from the current value and they are given as inputto the fuzzy logic and the fuzzy logic produces a combinedgain as the output. The fuzzy gain is given as the input to theneural network which in turn gives the proportional andintegral gain as the output. By using this proportional andintegral gain, the controller parameters are adjusted and makescurrent to remain stable.
 A. System Model
HVDC system model considered in our method is shownin Figure 1. HVDC systems are commonly used for longdistance transmission and its major problem is due to the faultthat occurs in the system.
Figure 1. HVDC system model
The faults considered in our system arei.
 
Single Line to Ground faultii.
 
Line to Line faulti. Single line to Ground faultThe single line to ground fault is a very common fault inHVDC systems. During this fault the current value getsincreased and the corresponding voltage decreases.ii. Line to Line faultThe line to line fault occurs between two transmissionlines. This fault is one of the common faults that occur inoverhead transmission lines.When a fault occurs in the system the current valueincreases and due to this increased current more problemsoccur in the system. To control this current we used a hybridtechnique which is a combination of fuzzy logic and neuralnetwork. The fuzzy logic is trained by giving error and ratevalues are given as its input.The error and rate values always depend on the current. If the current value is normal then the error is zero and if currentincreases the error also increases. The error and rate arecalculated by using the equations given below.
mref dc
 I  I  I 
=
(1)
 I  I 
 pvdcdc
=Ι
(2))(
1
dc
 I G E 
=
(3))(
2
dc
 I G R
&
=
(4)where,
 
ref 
 I 
is the reference current,
m
 I 
is the measuredcurrent,
is the sampling rate,
 pv
 I 
is the previous valueof error, and
21
,
GG
are the gains for normalization.By using the formulas the error and rate are calculated andthese calculated values are given as input to the fuzzy logic.
 B. Obtaining Fuzzy Gain
The fuzzy logic is used here, to obtain the combined gain.The current error and rate are the inputs given to the fuzzylogic for rectifier pole controller and inverter controller and itsoutput is the combined gain.The error and rate are given as input to the fuzzy logic andthe combined gain is obtained as its output. For obtaining thisfuzzy logic, the generation of fuzzy rules and training areimportant processes and these processes are explained insection III.E and III.F respectively. By giving any value of error and rate as input to the fuzzy the related combined gaincan be got as its output. When the current value changes thecombined gain also changes accordingly. Then, the fuzzyoutput is given as an input to the neural network and theproportional and integral gain are obtained from the neuralnetwork as outputs. Based on the change in the combined gainthat is given as input to the neural network, the proportionaland integral gain values will change.
C. Obtaining PI Controller Parameters from Neural Network 
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are excellent tools forcomplex manufacturing processes that have many variablesand complex interactions. Basically, neural network consistsof three layers, namely input layer, hidden layer and outputlayer. In our model, input layer has one variable, hidden layerhas n variables and output layer has two variables.The configuration of the network used is shown in Figure2.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010141http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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