(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010
2The model restricted software engineers to follow asequential order moving from one stage to the next onlyafter the completion of the former. Listed below are someflaws:
Rigid design and inflexible procedure .
Restricting back & forth movement from a later stage toa former one. When new requirements surfaceaccommodating those with existing ones becomedifficult due to restrictions in looping back to priorstages.
Waterfall Model faced
“inflexible point solutions”
which meant that even small amendments in the designwere difficult to incorporate later in design phase.
As the requirements were frozen before moving to thedesign phase, using the incomplete set of requirement, acomplete design was worked on. Such an approachworked normally well for a small project requiringaverage amendments. In case of a large project,completing a phase and then moving back toreconstruct the same phase, incurred a large overhead..
Once a phase is done, it is not repeated again that ismovement in the waterfall goes one to the next and thevice versa is not supported. Deadlines are difficult tomeet in case of large projects. 
In Prototype Model , the user is given a “look andfeel” of the system using a prototype. The prototype for thesystem to be developed is built, tested and reworked asnecessary. Prototype process model is suitable for dynamicenvironment where requirements change rapidly. Theprocess begins with gathering main functional requirements;this is followed by a quick design leading to thedevelopment of a prototype. The prototype is then evaluatedby users and customers. Developers rework on the prototypeuntil the customer and users are satisfied. The prototype canface the following limitations:
The main limitation of this model includes lack of information about the exact number of iterations andthe time period required to upgrade the prototype inorder to bring it up to the satisfaction of the user and thecustomer .
Developers are in such a rush that they hardly considerall the functionalities of the prototype. In order torelease the product as soon as possible, the prototypewith some additions is released on or before the targetrelease date. This happens due to lack of user analysisactivities; the end product contains features the user ishardly aware how to use. 
Often the developers make implementationcompromises in order to make the prototype work quickly, which will lead to the use of inappropriateoperating system or programming language .
The premature prototypes lack key consideration likesecurity, fault tolerance, distributed processing andother such key issues .D.
Incremental Development Model:
First In incremental development process ,customers identify, in outlined the services to be providedby the system. They identify which of the services are mostimportant and which are least important to them. A numberof delivery increments are then defined which eachincrement providing a subset of functional requirements.The highest priority functional requirements are deliveredfirst. The disadvantages of the model are:
It is difficult to map requirements directly to differentincrements. Include excessive user involvement. Poorlydefined scope as scope of product may vary incrementto increment.
Anoverhead in the model is rapid context switchingbetween various activities. Each iteration is followed byan evaluation ensuring that user requirements have beenmet . This evaluation after each iteration is timeconsuming.
In Spiral model  instead of presenting a sequence of activities with some backtracking from one activity to theother, the process model followed a spiral organization of activities. It combines characteristics of both prototype andwaterfall process model. The model is divided into sometask regions, which are as follows: CustomerCommunication, Planning, Risk Analysis, and Engineering,Construction and release and Customer evaluation. Thedistinctive feature of this model is that each stage iscontrolled by a specific risk management criteria ensuringdecision making using critical factors. The followingdisadvantages are identified in this model:
A number of risks, constraints, alternatives, models etc.need to be analyzed but never are these risks orobjectives listed and no specific risk analysis techniqueis mentioned. If risk analysis is poor the end productwill surely suffer.