(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
allocate resources, implement change, and thus improve personalization of the learning process. The system can bedesigned to use predictive strategies prior to instructiondelivery and learning sessions, during the instruction (based onthe learner's interaction), or both.The open adaptive learning environment  is in whichlearners dynamically select a learning route suitable to their needs and profile. The proposed environment is based on theIEEE/IMS learning object metadata (LOM) standard. Thenature of adaptations provided by this environment are centeredon the learner, and allow the LO to adapt to the evolvinglearner’s model in terms of background, learning modalities,and learning styles. It was summarized  the role of personalization in learning environments as follows:
Personalized learning environments enable one-to-one or many-to-one learning paradigms (one teacher - one learner,and many teachers – one learner), contrary to traditionallearning environments that always adopt one-to-manylearning paradigm (one teacher, many students);
Personalized learning environments impose no constraintsin terms of learning time, location, etc., whereas traditionalones are fairly restricted by the learning setting;
Personalized learning environments recognize the hugevariety in the learner's characteristics and preferences interms of the learning style, media, interests, and the like,and adapt instruction according to them; traditional ones areusually designed for the "average learner";
Personalized learning environments tailor instruction to suitthe learner's requirements (self-directed learning); intraditional learning environments, the curriculum, learningunits, and the selection and sequencing of learning materialare determined by the tutor.
It is generally agreed that credible evidence for mastery of learned material  is the goal of instructors. While educatorsand domain experts agree that decoding meaning from text plays a critical role in the acquisition of knowledge across alldisciplines, what particular evidence of mastery is required andwhat lends credibility to such evidence are the subjects of alively debate among experts in the learning community. Theneed for new methods for semantic analysis of digital text isnow widely recognized in the face of the rising tide of information on the Web. The layered model  for theSemantic Web as shown in Fig. 2 puts the relationship amongontology description languages, RDF and RDF Schema, andXML in a better perspective. The bottom layer offers character encoding (Unicode) and referencing (URI) mechanisms. Thesecond layer introduces XML as the document exchangestandard.The third layer accommodates RDF and RDF Schema asmechanisms to describe the resources available on the Web. Assuch, they may be classified as lightweight ontology languages.Full ontology description languages appear in the fourth layer as a way to capture more semantics. The topmost layer introduces expressive rule languages. The semantic web  is aspace understandable and navigable by both human andsoftware agents. It adds structured meaning and organization tothe navigational data of the current web, based on formalizedontologies and controlled vocabularies with semantic links toeach other. From the E-Learning perspective, it aids learners inlocating, accessing, querying, processing, and assessinglearning resources across a distributed heterogeneous network;it also aids instructors in creating, locating, using, reusing,sharing and exchanging learning objects (data andcomponents). The semantic web-based educational systemsneed to interoperate, collaborate and exchange content or re-use functionality. A key to enabling the interoperability is tocapitalize on (1) semantic conceptualization and ontologies, (2)common standardized communication syntax, and (3) large-scale service-based integration of educational content andfunctionality provision and usage. The vision of the semanticweb-based E-Learning is founded on the following major premises:
Machine-understandable educational content
Shareable educational ontologies, including:
Subject matter ontologies
Authoring ontologies (modeling authors’ activities)
Educational semantic web services, for supporting:
Learning, e.g., information retrieval, summarization,interpretation (sense-making), structure-visualization,argumentation, etc.
Assessment, e.g., tests and performance tracking
Collaboration, e.g., group formation, peer help, etc.
Semantic interoperabilitySemantic interoperability, the key promise of the semanticweb, is defined as a study of bridging differences betweeninformation systems on two levels as following:
on an access level, where system and organizational boundaries have to be crossed by creating standardizedinterfaces that share system-internal services in a loosely-coupled way; and
On a meaning level, where agreements about transporteddata have to be made in order to permit their correctinterpretation. Interoperability requires the use of standard SW languages for representing ontologies,educational content, and services.
The word ontology comes from the Greek ontos, for being,and logos, for word. In philosophy, it refers to the subject of existence, i.e. to the study of being as such. More precisely, itis the study of the categories of things that exist or may existin some domain . Domain ontology explains the types of things in that domain. Ontology  comprises a set of knowledge terms, including the vocabulary, the semanticinterconnections, and some simple rules of inference and logic
Fig. 2: The Architecture of the Semantic Web
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