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Design of Hybrid Ontologies for Mediation System Applied to the E-learning Platform

Design of Hybrid Ontologies for Mediation System Applied to the E-learning Platform

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Published by ijcsis
This work falls within the scope of E-learning is important for several reasons. First, resources are structured (educational needs) and therefore easier to annotate. Second, there is a curriculum (or Education Plan) that ensures the semantic integration of resources. Third, services are available to the teacher and learner. And finally, post evaluation of knowledge acquired by the learner, to verify the adequacy of resources presented to the learner, and indirectly the appropriateness of teaching strategies implemented to follow up resources and services. First of all, it describes the problems of integrating multiple sources of educational and placed in the ontology integration process, then treated mediation services, and their contribution on an E-learning platform.
This work falls within the scope of E-learning is important for several reasons. First, resources are structured (educational needs) and therefore easier to annotate. Second, there is a curriculum (or Education Plan) that ensures the semantic integration of resources. Third, services are available to the teacher and learner. And finally, post evaluation of knowledge acquired by the learner, to verify the adequacy of resources presented to the learner, and indirectly the appropriateness of teaching strategies implemented to follow up resources and services. First of all, it describes the problems of integrating multiple sources of educational and placed in the ontology integration process, then treated mediation services, and their contribution on an E-learning platform.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 9, 2010
Design of Hybrid Ontologies for Mediation SystemApplied to the E-learning Platform
Otman ABDOUN Jaber EL BOUHDIDI Mohamed GHAILANI
 
Abdelhadi FENNAN
 
Laboratory LIST,ERIT
 
Laboratory LIST
 
Laboratory LIST
 
Laboratory LIST
 
FST
 – 
Tangier
 
FST - Tangier
 
FST - Tangier
 
FST
 – 
Tangier
 
Tangier, Morocco
 
Tangier, Morocco
 
Tangier, Morocco
 
Tangier, Morocco
 
otman.abdoun@gmail.com
 
 jaber.f15@gmail.com
 
ghalamed@gmail.com
 
afennan@gmail.com
 Abstract
 — 
This work falls within the scope of E-learning isimportant for several reasons. First, resources are structured(educational needs) and therefore easier to annotate. Second,there is a curriculum (or Education Plan) that ensures thesemantic integration of resources. Third, services are availableto the teacher and learner. And finally, post evaluation of knowledge acquired by the learner, to verify the adequacy of resources presented to the learner, and indirectly theappropriateness of teaching strategies implemented to followup resources and services. First of all, it describes the problemsof integrating multiple sources of educational and placed in theontology integration process, then treated mediation services,and their contribution on an E-learning platform.
 Keywords- E-learning; Mediation Services; Hybrid Ontologies.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
Today, the E-learning platforms and educationalinformation systems use different systems to store and viewdata. Competition, growth in technology, distribution andevolution of the inevitable decentralization contribute to thisplurality. These resources are designed independently of each other, with models and languages that are different, andindependent owners. Most of them were not created to beinteroperable. To achieve this interoperability, systemsintegration data are available.The basic difficulties for integration and heterogeneity of educational resources belong to two concepts: structural andsemantic. Using a Mediator Agent ensures translation of responses from different data sources and solves the obstacleof the heterogeneous physical and logical sources or servicesby providing a uniform access interface. But the semanticheterogeneity remains, even if it requires different sources, tobe in a consistent format. One solution involves the use of one or more ontologies as a tool for the integration of educational resources.II.
 
INTEGRATION
 
APPROACHESA data integration system can be characterized by itsarchitecture and integration model. We will distinguish twobasic skeletons for data integration.
 A.
 
 Mediator Approach
The mediator approach is based on defining mappings forquery translation: a request set by the user in terms of globalschema is translated into one or more subqueries that areevaluated on resources or services [2]. The answers areordered and processed to be compatible with the overallpattern and conform to the query posed by the user (Fig. 1).
Figure 1. Mediator architecture
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325http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 9, 2010
 B.
 
 Data Warehouse Approach
The warehouse approach applies the principle of theviews and integrates data sources in accordance with theoverall patterns [7]. The result is a data warehouse that canbe directly examined through a suitable language (Fig. 2).
Figure 2. Mediator Warehouse
III.
 
DATA
 
INTEGRATION
 
BASED
 
ON
 
ONTOLOGYTo achieve semantic interoperability in heterogeneousinformation, system requires that the semantics of information exchanged is understood throughout the system.
The Ontology gives the names and descriptions of entitiesin a specific field by using the attributes that represent therelationship between these entities.
There are many advantages in the use of ontologies fordata integration. The ontology provides a rich vocabularyand predefined concept that interfaces stable access todatabases, and is independent of database schemas.Knowledge represented by the ontology is sufficientlycomplete to support the appropriate translation of all sourcesof information [1]. The ontology supports compliancemanagement and identification of conflicting data.The use of ontologies for the interpretation of implicitand hidden knowledge is one possible approach toovercome the problem of semantic heterogeneity. Manyapproaches to integration based on ontologies have beendeveloped to achieve interoperability.In almost all approaches to integration based onontologies, they are used for the explicit description of thesemantics of information sources. But how to use theseontologies can be different. Three different directions areidentified as follows:
 A.
 
 Approach with a Single Ontology
The approach with a single ontology
which uses a globalontology that provides a shared vocabulary for thespecification of the semantics of data sources (Fig. 3). Alldata sources are linked to a global ontology. This can alsobe a combination of specialized ontologies. We can applythis approach to integration problems where all informationsources to integrate provide almost the same view on adomain.
Figure 3. Approach with a single ontology
This approach has a major drawback when adding orremoving data sources. Indeed, the conceptualization of thedomain represented in the ontology may require changes.This led to the development of approaches with multipleontologies.
 B.
 
 Approach Based on Multiple Ontologies
In the approach with several ontologies, each source isdescribed by its own ontology (Fig. 4). The advantage of this approach is that ontology has no need for commitmentto a common minimum global ontology. Each source of ontology can be developed without the need to meet or findother sources and ontologies. This architecture cansignificantly simplify the task of integrating and supportingthe change (adding and removing sources). However, thelack of common vocabulary makes it difficult to comparebetween different source ontologies.
Figure 4. Approach based on multiple ontologies
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326http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 9, 2010
To overcome this problem, an additional, formalrepresentation defining the mapping between ontologies isnecessary. The mapping between ontologies semanticallyidentifies the correspondence of terms of differentontologies.
C.
 
 Hybrid Approach
To overcome the drawbacks of the first two approaches,
 hybrid approaches
have been developed (Fig. 5). Thisapproach describes the semantics of each source by its ownontology as with the approach to multiple ontologies. But tomake the local ontologies comparable to each other, they arebuilt from a global shared vocabulary.
Figure 5. Hybrid approach for the description of data sources
It contains the basic terms is an area that can be combinedwith local ontologies to describe a more complex semantics.Sometimes the shared vocabulary can be an ontology.The advantage of the hybrid approach is the fact that newsources can easily be added without the need for change.Also, this approach supports the acquisition anddevelopment of ontologies. But the major drawback of hybrid approaches is that existing ontologies cannot easilybe reused, but must be rebuilt.The state of the art in data integration architectureshowed that the hybrid approach allows for greaterscalability and extension. Indeed, this architecture allowsadding new sources to ensure certain independence.The mediation system must manage the independence of data sources and their distribution. In addition, the systemmust manage the interaction between the global ontologyand local ontologies in creating queries.IV.
 
MEDIATION
 
ARCHITECTURE
 
ADAPTED
 
FOR
 
A
 
PLATFORM
 
FOR
 
DISTANCE
 
LEARNINGE-learning application is online through the use of theWeb. Given the diversity and the exponential growth of learning resources used in a training type E-learning, it isincreasingly difficult to find relevant teaching materials [8].E-learning application is sharing the same problem of relevance with the Web when learners want to accessknowledge at their disposal.
 A.
 
The Modeling of a Mediation System Based onOntologies for E-Learning Platform
We agree to use a mediation system based on ontologies.Local and global ontologies provide a common set of termsthat can be applied to any resource, which allowsorganizations to describe and search their resources [11].
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Figure 6. Proposed mediation architecture
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327http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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