by the planting of enough young trees to replace the older ones felled in any given forest. Thenumber of new tree plantations is growing each year, but their total still equals a tiny fraction of the Earth¶s forested land.
is the clearance of naturally occurring forests byloggingand burning(popularlyknown as slash and burn).Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees or derivedcharcoalare used as, or sold, for fuel or as a commodity, while cleared land is used as pasturefor livestock, plantations of commodities,and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficientreforestationhas resulted in damage tohabitat, biodiversityloss andaridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestrationof atmospheric
carbon dioxide. Deforested regions typically incur significant adversesoil erosionand frequently
degrade intowasteland.Disregard or ignorance of intrinsic value, lack of ascribed value, lax forest management anddeficient environmental laws are some of the factors that allow deforestation to occur on a largescale. In many countries, deforestation is an ongoing issue that is causingextinction, changes toclimatic conditions,desertification, and displacement of indigenous people.
Almost one-third of the earth's land is covered with forest. They play an important role insustaining life. They house over 60% of the world's biodiversity and provide human beings withmany products such as food, medicine, fuel, lumber, paper etc. Aside from the numerous products that can be acquired from the forests, they also play very important ecological roles bystopping erosion, protecting the watershed, controlling stream and river flows, regulatingatmospheric conditions, and preventing flooding and landslides.But because of several reasons, this valuable ecosystem is rapidly disappearing in various partsof the world. Deforestation rates have increased since the 1980s. To date, according to theestimate given by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, a groupresponsible for the forests, deforestation rates have accelerated during the 1990s translating to10.14 million hectares of denuded forests from 1990-2000 and to 10.4 million hectares in the period of 2000-2005.Deforestation and forest degradation occur in response to policy, market and institutional signals.It is the result of the interaction of many environmental, economic, social, cultural and politicalconditions in any given region.There are two main causes of deforestation. The primary and most common reasons for deforestation are known as the direct causes. Logging, overpopulation, urbanization, damconstruction etc are under direct causes. The other main cause of deforestation is known asnatural causes since they are brought by the Mother Nature.Rapid population growth has resulted to the conversion of forest areas to non-forest lands for settlement and farming. Together with this is urbanization and residential area expansion. This