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Questions of DNS

Questions of DNS

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Published by: Sujit.S on Aug 13, 2008
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Frequently asked questions about Windows 2000 DNS and Windows Server 2003DNSSUMMARY
This article describes DNS functionality in Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003, andprovides answers to frequently asked questions about Windows 2000 and Windows Server2003 DNS.
MORE INFORMATION
DNS is the backbone of Active Directory and the primary name resolution mechanism of Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 domaincontrollers dynamically register information about themselves and about Active Directory inDNS. Other Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 domain controllers, servers, andworkstations that are part of the domain query DNS to find Active Directory-relatedinformation. If DNS is not set up correctly, domain-wide issues can occur such as replicationbetween domain controllers. You may also be unable to log on to the domain or to join thedomain from a workstation or server.
Question
: What are the common mistakes that are made when administrators set up DNS onnetwork that contains a single Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 domain controller?
Answer
: The most common mistakes are:The domain controller is not pointing to itself for DNS resolution on all network interfaces.The "." zone exists under forward lookup zones in DNS.Other computers on the local area network (LAN) do not point to the Windows 2000 orWindows Server 2003 DNS server for DNS.
Question
: Why do I have to point my domain controller to itself for DNS?
Answer
: The Netlogon service on the domain controller registers a number of records in DNSthat enable other domain controllers and computers to find Active Directory-relatedinformation. If the domain controller is pointing to the Internet service provider's (ISP) DNSserver, Netlogon does not register the correct records for Active Directory, and errors aregenerated in Event Viewer. In Windows Server 2003, the recommended DNS configuration is toconfigure the DNS client settings on all DNS servers to use themselves as their own primaryDNS server, and to use a different domain controller in the same domain as their alternativeDNS server, preferably another domain controller in the same site. This process also worksaround the DNS "Island" problem in Windows 2000. You must always configure the DNS clientsettings on each domain controller's network interface to use the alternative DNS serveraddresses in addition to the primary DNS server address.For more information about the Windows 2000 DNS "Island" problem, see "Chapter 2 -Structural Planning for Branch Office Environments" in the "Planning" section of the Windows2000 Server Active Directory Branch Office Planning Guide at the following Microsoft Web site:http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/techinfo/planning/activedirectory/branchoffice/default.asp
Question
: What does a domain controller register in DNS?
Answer
: The Netlogon service registers all the SRV records for that domain controller. Theserecords are displayed as the _msdcs, _sites, _tcp, and _udp folders in the forward lookup zonethat matches your domain name. Other computers look for these records to find ActiveDirectory-related information.
Question
: Why can't I use WINS for name resolution like it is used in Microsoft Windows NT
 
4.0?
Answer
: A Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 domain controller does not register ActiveDirectory-related information with a WINS server; it only registers this information with a DNSserver that supports dynamic updates such as a Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 DNSserver. Other Windows 2000-based and Windows Server 2003-based computers do not queryWINS to find Active Directory-related information.
Question
: If I remove the ISP's DNS server settings from the domain controller, how does itresolve names such as Microsoft.com on the Internet?
Answer
: As long as the "." zone does not exist under forward lookup zones in DNS, the DNSservice uses the root hint servers. The root hint servers are well-known servers on the Internetthat help all DNS servers resolve name queries.
Question
: What is the "." zone in my forward lookup zone?
Answer
: This setting designates the Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 DNS server to bea root hint server and is usually deleted. If you do not delete this setting, you may not be ableto perform external name resolution to the root hint servers on the Internet.For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the MicrosoftKnowledge Base:229840DNS server's root hints and forwarder pages are unavailable
Question
: Do I need to configure forwarders in DNS?
Answer
: No. By default, Windows 2000 DNS uses the root hint servers on the Internet;however, you can configure forwarders to send DNS queries directly to your ISP's DNS serveror other DNS servers. Most of the time, when you configure forwarders, DNS performance andefficiency increases, but this configuration can also introduce a point of failure if the forwardingDNS server is experiencing problems. The root hint server can provide a level of redundancy inexchange for slightly increased DNS traffic on your Internet connection. Windows Server 2003DNS will query root hints servers if it cannot query the forwarders.
Question
: Should I point the other Windows 2000-based and Windows Server 2003-basedcomputers on my LAN to my ISP's DNS servers?
Answer
: No. If a Windows 2000-based or Windows Server 2003-based server or workstationdoes not find the domain controller in DNS, you may experience issues joining the domain orlogging on to the domain. A Windows 2000-based or Windows Server 2003-based computer'spreferred DNS setting should point to the Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 domaincontroller running DNS. If you are using DHCP, make sure that you view scope option #15 forthe correct DNS server settings for your LAN.
Question
: Do I need to point computers that are running Windows NT 4.0 or MicrosoftWindows 95, Microsoft Windows 98, or Microsoft Windows 98 Second Edition to the Windows2000 or Windows Server 2003 DNS server?
Answer
: Legacy operating systems continue to use NetBIOS for name resolution to find adomain controller; however it is recommended that you point all computers to the Windows2000 or Windows Server 2003 DNS server for name resolution.
Question
: What if my Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 DNS server is behind a proxyserver or firewall?

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