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https://www.scribd.com/doc/47289758/EMF

12/10/2012

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The University of QueenslandDepartment of Physics2008Lecture notes and tutorial problems of theundergraduate coursePHYS3050/PHYS7051ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY III

Lecturer: Zbigniew FicekPhysics Annexe(6): Rm 436Ph: 3365 2331email: ﬁcek@physics.uq.edu.auhttp://www.physics.uq.edu.au/people/ﬁcek/Consultation Hours: Wednesday 2pm – 4pm

Preface

This lecture notes covers the principal elements of classical electromagnetictheory embodying Maxwell’s equations with applications mainly to situationswhere electric charge can be treated as a continuous ﬂuid. The intention isto introduce students to the background of classical ﬁeld theory and theapplications of the electromagnetic theory to solid state physics, classicaloptics, radiation theory and telecommunication.The goal of this course is to provide a compact logical exposition of thefundamentals of the electromagnetic theory and the applications to variousareas of physics and engineering. The treatment is quantitative throughoutand an attempt has been made to imbue students with a sound understandingof the Maxwell’s equations and with the ability to apply them to modernproblems in physics.The organization of the lectures is fairly standard and includes vectoranalysis, electrostatic, magnetostatic, mathematical techniques in the solu-tion of the Maxwell’s equations and the Laplace’s equation, time varyingﬁelds and applications of the solution of the Maxwell’s equations. The ma-terial on vector analysis gives greater emphasis to the relationship betweenﬁelds and their sources.A number of revision questions have been included at the end of eachchapter. These questions have been designed not only to point out to thestudent the essential material of the chapter but also to test the students’understanding of the material presented in the chapter. In addition, tutorialproblems have been included at the end of the chapters that contain themost important elements of the electromagnetic theory. These problemswill be discussed and solved in details during the tutorial sessions, but itis hoped that the student will attack these problems before attending thetutorial session.2

Contents

1 The Classical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field 13

1.1 Elementary Aspects of Electromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.2 Macroscopic Charges and Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.2.1 Charge Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.2.2 Current density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Revision questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2 Mathematical Description of Vector Fields 20

2.1 Gradient of a Scalar Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.2 Divergence Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.3 The Flux of a Vector Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242.4 Gauss’s Divergence Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242.5 The Continuity Equation for Electric Current . . . . . . . . . 252.6 Curl (Rotation) Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262.7 Stokes’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272.8 Successive Application of

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Revision questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Tutorial problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3 Vectorial Equations in Electromagnetism: Scalar and VectorPotentials 34

3.1 Maxwell’s Equations, an Example of Vectorial Equations . . . 343.2 Scalar Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353.3 Vector Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Revision questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Tutorial problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

4 The Experimental Basis of the Development of Electromag-netic Theory 41

4.1 Coulomb’s Law – Force between Static Charges . . . . . . . . 414.2 Gauss’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424.3 Biot-Savart Law – Force between Static Currents . . . . . . . 494.4 Current Element and Charge Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514.5 The Lorentz Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524.6 Amperes Circuit Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534.7 Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction . . . . . . . . . . 553

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