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Fire Fighting Systems

Fire Fighting Systems

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Published by Mariah Ibrahim

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Published by: Mariah Ibrahim on Jan 21, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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New Town Development Sdn Bhd is planned to build a 40 storey including 4 storeybasement, commercial building. The building comprises of 4 storey basement parking and 7storey shopping complex, the rest are offices lot.
Figure 1: Building part 
Factors important for fire sprinkler the proposed building.
Fire sprinklers have been so successful at reducing fire causalities and property damagearound the world, that many regions have passed local laws making it mandatory to fit themin shopping complex and commercial building. Some regions are even making it mandatoryto retro fit fire sprinkler systems into selected existing buildings, because of that reason thatwhy we chose sprinkler system for this 40 storey building.
Sprinkler systems provide an additional degree of protection for both life and property abovesmoke and/or other fire detection systems. A correctly designed and installed sprinklesystem can detect and control a fire at an early stage of development and activate an alarm.Correct operation of the system will rapidly reduce the production rate of heat and smoke,allowing more time for the occupants to escape safely or be rescued.Sprinkler Systems(i) IntroductionSprinkler Systems are the most popular of automatic water based fixed firefighting systems.Sprinklers play an important part in the fire engineering approach to fire protection in buildingdesign.(ii) LegislationThe Building Regulations specifically make provisions for sprinklers in certain buildings suchas a life risk in high multi-storey buildings, large unpartitioned areas in shops andcommercial premises and buildings for industrial and storage use. The installation of sprinklers allows buildings to be larger and closer to adjoining premises than would normallyhave been permitted.(iii) StandardsA sprinkler system has to be properly designed and fitted to appropriate British Standards.A certificate of conformity can be issued if the Loss Prevention Certification Board approvesthe installing company. The standards comprise detailed system requirements and FireSafety Officers and other specialists should deal with advice on their application and use.(iv) General Description of a Sprinkler SystemA grid of pipes covers all areas of the building to be protected with sprinkler heads fitted intothem at regular intervals. Water from a tank via pumps or from the town main (if it can giveenough flow) fills the pipes. Each sprinkler head will open when it reaches a specifictemperature and spray water on to a fire. The hot gases from a fire are usually enough tomake it operate. Only the sprinklers over the fire open. The others remain closed. This limitsany damage to areas where there is no fire and reduces the amount of water needed. Thesprinkler heads are spaced, generally on the ceiling, so that if one or more operate there isalways sufficient flow of water. The flow is calculated so that there is always enough tocontrol a fire taking into account the size and construction of the building and the goods
stored in it or its use. Sprinkler heads can be placed in enclosed roof spaces and into floor ducts to protect areas where a fire can start without being noticed.In a large warehouse sprinklers may be placed in the storage racks as well as at roof level.At the point where the water enters the sprinkler system there is a valve. This can be used toshut off the system for maintenance. For safety reasons it is kept locked in the open positionand only authorised persons should be able to close it. If a sprinkler head opens, watersflows through the valve and lets water into another pipe that causes a bell to ring. In this waythe sprinkler system both controls the fire and gives an alarm using water, not electricity.There are many factors that have an influence on the level of fire fighting installation offeredby this building. Some of the more significant factors are listed below:
Numbers and types of fire starts
Likelihood of fire suppression by occupants
Reliability and effectiveness of the detection and alarm system
Communication system
Emergency procedure and staff training
Reliability and effectives of the sprinkler system
Fire characteristics(flames and smoke)
The action of the fire brigade
Reliability and effectiveness of the smoke control system.
Mall sprinklers
Sprinklers in shops are an essential part of the smoke ventilation design in order to preventa fire growing beyond the design fire size. Sprinkler operation in the malls will lead toincreased heat loss reducing the buoyancy of smoke, which in turn can contribute to aprogressive loss of visibility under the smoky layer. However, gases sufficiently hot enoughto set off sprinklers will remain initially as a thermally buoyant layer under the ceiling.

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