One mole's volume of a gas at room temperature is 24 dm^3 ( 24Litres )Mole = Concentration × VolumeMole = Volume of Gas / 24dm^3Mole = Mass of Total substance / 1 mole ( 1 mole or RelativeAtomic/Molecular mass in Grams )Ratio in compound xy3 is x:3y , in other words , mole(x):3mole(y)which is also 1:3Hope this new update helps with the "amazing" Mole calculation part. I'mLovin' it ( Obviously a liar ) and sorry for complicating.Here are a couple of tests that I copied from my book , IGCSE Chemistry ,Printed and published by Cambridge University by Richard HarwoodTesting for Anions ( Negative Ions ) :Carbonate ( CO3 2- ), add dilute hydrochloric acid ,result iseffervescence , carbon dioxide produced ( test with limewater )Chloride in solution ( Cl- ) , acidify solution with dilute nitric acid thenadd aqueous silver nitrate , result is white ppt. of silver chloride formed.( ppt soluble in ammonia solution )Bromide in solution ( Br- ) acidify solution with dilute nitric acid thenadd aqueous silver nitrate , result is cream ppt. of silver bromide formed, ( only slightly soluble in ammonia solution )Iodide in solution ( I- ) acidify with dilute nitric acid then add aqueoussilver nitrate , result is yellow ppt of silver iodide , insoluble in ammoniasolution OR acidify with dilute nitric acid then add lead nitratesolution , result yellow ppt. of lead iodide formed.Sulphate in solution ( SO4 2- ) acidify solution with dilute hydrochloricacid then add barium chloride solution , OR acidify solution with dilutenitric acid then add barium nitrate solution ,result for both is white pptof barium sulphate formed.Nitrate in solution ( NO3 - ) make alkaline with sodium hydroxidesolution then add aluminium foil ( or Devarda's alloy ) and warmcarefully , result is Ammonia gas is given off ( test with moist red litmus).Testing for Metal ions by burning :Sodium (Na+) burns giving yellow flame.Potassium (K+) burns giving lilac flame ( pale violet ).