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igcse Chemistry Precipition revision

igcse Chemistry Precipition revision

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Published by Hassan mahmud
igcse Chemistry Precipition revision
igcse Chemistry Precipition revision

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Published by: Hassan mahmud on Jan 21, 2011
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12/05/2013

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FOR MORE INFOR:-
Math_angel wrote:let me give some general details:-Define mole:1 mole of any substance is its Ar or Mr expressed in grams-no. of moles = mass of substance/mass of one mole-no. of moles of gas = volume in dm3 /24 (1dm3=1000cm3)-no. of moles of solute= conc. X volume (be careful in units either all dm3 orcm3)-(u should know how to rearrange an eqn.)-when the reactions involve only gases then we can use the ratio of volumesinstead of mole ratio.-Percentage yield = actual yield/theoretical yield X100-Percentage purity = mass of pure substance / mass of impure substance X100-steps for finding molecular formula---find no. of moles(method of finding this differs according to question)---hence find the mole ratio---and then calculate empirical formula---find n which is=>relative molecular mass/empirical formula mass---then find molecular formula=>(empirical formula)n and simplify-finally what SuperXDE said practice some past paper question as Practicemakes a man perfect!!Update : 6/6/2010 03:37:23 wrote:Mole ( Curses ) and their rules :One Mole is 6.02 × 10^23 Molecules of an Element ( or Atoms , in caseof a pure non-reacted element ) , a mole of En is equal to n×E'sMass ingrams and it contains 6.02 × 10^23 ( Twenty one zeroes , this numberis called Avogrado's constant )where E stands for Element or molecule and n stands for the number of elements or molecules ( ¬¬" ).
 
One mole's volume of a gas at room temperature is 24 dm^3 ( 24Litres )Mole = Concentration × VolumeMole = Volume of Gas / 24dm^3Mole = Mass of Total substance / 1 mole ( 1 mole or RelativeAtomic/Molecular mass in Grams )Ratio in compound xy3 is x:3y , in other words , mole(x):3mole(y)which is also 1:3Hope this new update helps with the "amazing" Mole calculation part. I'mLovin' it ( Obviously a liar ) and sorry for complicating.Here are a couple of tests that I copied from my book , IGCSE Chemistry ,Printed and published by Cambridge University by Richard HarwoodTesting for Anions ( Negative Ions ) :Carbonate ( CO3 2- ), add dilute hydrochloric acid ,result iseffervescence , carbon dioxide produced ( test with limewater )Chloride in solution ( Cl- ) , acidify solution with dilute nitric acid thenadd aqueous silver nitrate , result is white ppt. of silver chloride formed.( ppt soluble in ammonia solution )Bromide in solution ( Br- ) acidify solution with dilute nitric acid thenadd aqueous silver nitrate , result is cream ppt. of silver bromide formed, ( only slightly soluble in ammonia solution )Iodide in solution ( I- ) acidify with dilute nitric acid then add aqueoussilver nitrate , result is yellow ppt of silver iodide , insoluble in ammoniasolution OR acidify with dilute nitric acid then add lead nitratesolution , result yellow ppt. of lead iodide formed.Sulphate in solution ( SO4 2- ) acidify solution with dilute hydrochloricacid then add barium chloride solution , OR acidify solution with dilutenitric acid then add barium nitrate solution ,result for both is white pptof barium sulphate formed.Nitrate in solution ( NO3 - ) make alkaline with sodium hydroxidesolution then add aluminium foil ( or Devarda's alloy ) and warmcarefully , result is Ammonia gas is given off ( test with moist red litmus).Testing for Metal ions by burning :Sodium (Na+) burns giving yellow flame.Potassium (K+) burns giving lilac flame ( pale violet ).
 
Calcium (Ca2+) burns giving brick-red flame.Lithium (Li+) burns giving crimson flame.Copper (Cu2+) burns giving a blue-green flame.Barium (Ba2+) apple-green (chartuese , close to lime a bit I think ).Testing for Positive ions in solutions by adding sodium hydroxide:Ammonium (NH4 +) , ammonia produced on warming.Copper(II) (Cu 2+) , light blue gelatinous ppt. of copper hydroxide( insoluble in excess sodium hydroxide ).Iron(II) (Fe 2+) , green gelatinous ppt. of iron(II) hydroxide ( insolublein excess ).Iron(III) (Fe 3+) , rust-brown gelatinous ppt. of iron(III) hydroxide( insoluble in excess ).Calcium (Ca 2+) , white ppt of calcium hydroxide ( insoluble in excess ).Magnesium (Mg 2+) white ppt. of magnesium hydroxide ( insoluble inexcess ).Zinc (Zn 2+) , white ppt. of zinc hydroxide ,soluble in excess ,giving acolourless solution.Aluminium (Al3+) white ppt. of aluminium hydroxide , soluble inexcess ,giving a colourless solution.Testing for Positive ions in solutions by adding ammonia solution:Ammonium (NH4 +) , ----- ( I think it means no reaction ).Copper(II) (Cu 2+) , light blue gelatinous ppt. dissolves in excessammonia , giving a deep blue solution.Iron(II) (Fe 2+) , green gelatinous ppt. of iron(II) hydroxide ( insolublein excess ).Iron(III) (Fe 3+) , rust-brown gelatinous ppt. of iron(III) hydroxide( insoluble in excess ).Calcium (Ca 2+) , no ppt. (or only a very slight ppt.).Magnesium (Mg 2+) white ppt. (soluble in excess).

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