Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
46Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
AP Chemistry - Equilibrium and LeChatelier's Principle Lab

AP Chemistry - Equilibrium and LeChatelier's Principle Lab

Ratings: (0)|Views: 32,260|Likes:
Published by Jonathan Chen

More info:

Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Jonathan Chen on Jan 21, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/23/2013

pdf

text

original

 
urpose:The purpose of this lab is to investigate the equilibrium of a saturatedaCl solution, an acid-base indicator using HCl and NaOH, the complex ioneSCN
+2
, and two different complex cobalt ions by adding "stress"to theseystems by changing the concentration of one of the reactants or products or byhanging the temperature of the system.ackground:Le Chatelier's Principle states that if an equilibrium system is subjectedo a stress, the system will react to remove the stress.To remove a stress, aystem can only do one of two things: form more products using up reactants,r reverse the reaction and form more reactants, using up products. In thisxperiment you will form several equilibrium systems. Then, by puttingifferent stresses on the systems, you will observe how equilibrium systemseact to a stress.Acid-base indicators are large organic molecules that can gain and loseydrogen ions to form substances that have different colors. The reaction of thendicator bromthymol blue can be illustrated as follows:HIn
(aq)

H
+(aq)
+ In
-(aq)
Yellow Blue
n this reaction, HIn is the neutral indicator molecule, and IN
-
is the indicator on after the molecule has lost a hydrogen ion. Equilibrium reactions can easilye forced to go in either direction.An equilibrium solution can be formed in solution with the followingons:Fe
+3(aq)
+ SCN
-(aq)

FeSCN
+2(aq)
Colorless Colorless Red-brown
he iron ion (Fe
+3
) and the thiocyanate ion (SCN
-
) are both colorless; however,he ion that forms from their combination, the FeSCN
+2
ion, is a dark red-rown. It is the color of this ion that will indicate how the equilibrium systems being affected. Phosphate ions have the ability to form complex ions withe
+3
, which has the same effect as removing Fe
+
from solution.In Part 4, the equilibrium between two different complex ions of cobaltill be investigated. The reaction is endothermic:Co(H
2
O)
6+2(aq) +
4Cl
-(aq)

CoCl
4-2(aq)
+ 6H
2
O
(l)
¨H = +50kJ/mol
 Pi
nk Blue
olver and chloride ions combine to form a precipitate of AgCl.afety Precautions:HCl is hazardous and should be handled with care. It also has strongapors that should not be inhaled. Wash spills off with lots of water, and if 
 
 pilledneutralize with baking soda. NaOH is also hazardous. If spilled,eutralize with vinegar. Ethanol is flammable. Turn off all flames. Silver itrate causes stains on skin and clothing. Wash spills off with soap and water mmediately.Wear lab safety goggles &a chemical-resistant apron.aterials:
y
 
HCI, 12 M AND 0.1 M
y
 
 NaCl
(s)
 
y
 
SCN, 0.002 M
y
 
SCN
(s)
 
y
 
Bromothymol blue indicator solution
y
 
 NaOH, 0.1 M
y
 
Fe(NO
3
)
3
, 0.2 M
y
 
AgNO
3
, 0.1 M
y
 
Ethanol
y
 
Cobalt(II) chloride/CoCl
2
*6H
2
O
(s)
 
y
 
Disodium hydrogen phosphate/ Na
2
HPO
4(S)
y
 
Test tubes, 13 x 150-mm
y
 
Test tube rack 
y
 
Beaker, 100 mL
y
 
G
raduated cylinders
y
 
Funnel, filter paper, andholder for funnelrocedure:
art 1 ± Equilibrium in a Saturated Solution
1)
 
Pour some solid NaCl into a 13- X 100-mm test tube.
2
)
 
Fill the tube ¾ with distilled water.
3
)
 
Cork and shake to saturate solution. If all the NaCl dissolves, pour additional NaCl into the test tube and shake again until solution issaturated and excess solid can be seen at the bottom of the test tube.
4
)
 
Filter the solution into a second test tube.
5
)
 
To this saturated NaCl solution, add Cl
-
ions in the form of concentratedHCl. Record observations.
art 2 ± Acid-Base Indicator Equilibrium
1)
 
Fill a small test tube about half-full of distilled water. Add severaldrops of bromthymol blue indicator solution.2)
 
Add 5 drops of HCl and stir. Notes the color of the indicator.3)
 
Add 0.1M NaOH drop by drop while stirring until no further color change occurs. Again, note the color.4)
 
See if you can add the right amount of acid to this test tube to cause thesolution to be green in color after it is stirred (half of the indicator is blue and half is yellow).
art 3 ± A Complex Ion Equilibrium
1)
 
Pour about 25mL of 0.0020M
SCN solution into a beaker.
 
2)
 
Add 25mL of distilled water and 5 drops of Fe(NO
3
)
3
. Swirl thesolution, and note the following: the color ofFe(NO
3
)
3
solution, thecolor of the
SCN solution, and the color of the resulting complex ion.3)
 
Pour equal amounts of the solution from the beaker into four test tubes.4)
 
Add 2-3 crystals of solid
SCN to the 2
nd
test tube. Observe.5)
 
Add 6 drops of Fe(NO
3
)
3
solutionto the 3
rd
test tube. Stir and observe.6)
 
Add small crystals of Na
2
HPO
4,
a few at a time, to the 4
th
test tube. Stir and observe.
art 4 ± Equilibrium with Cobalt Complex Ions
 1)
 
Measure10mL of ethanol into a beaker.2)
 
Examine solid cobalt(II) chloride and note its color.3)
 
Dissolve a small amount of cobalt(II) chloride (about half the size of a pea) in the beaker of ethanol. The solution should be purple. If it is pink, add a little concentrated HCl until the color is purple.4)
 
Put 2mL of alcoholic cobalt solution into each of the 3 test tubes.5)
 
To one of the test tubes, add 3 drops of distilled water, one drop at atime while stirring, noting what happens with each drop.6)
 
Add 3 drops of distilled water to each of the other 2 test tubes. Observethe effect of this stress on the system.7)
 
To the 2
nd
test tube, add 5 drops of concentrated HCl, 12M, one drop ata time while stirring. Observe.8)
 
To the 3
rd
test tube add a few crystals of solid NaCl. Stir and observe.9)
 
Put the remainder of the alcoholic cobalt solution from the beaker intoa 4
th
test tube. Add 10 drops of 0.1M AgNO
3
, one drop at a time. Notethe color of the solution as chloride ions precipitate.10)
 
Obtain a sealed Beral pipet containing some of the alcoholic cobaltchloride-water system. Note its color, andimmerse the large end of the pipet in hot water (about 60
C). Observe.11)
 
Chill the Beral pipet in an ice bath. Observe.nalysis/Observations:art 1 - The saturated solution of NaCl had a clear color, and some tiny saltarticles were suspended throughout the test tube after shaking. Adding Cl
-
inhe form of HCl turned the solution yellow by forcing the reaction to the leftnd the dissociated Cl
-
ions to recombine into HCL.Fumes were visibly seen.art 2 ± Adding HCl to the bromothymol blue solution shifted the reaction tohe left, thus turning the solution a yellow-orange. Adding NaOH shifted the

Activity (46)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Alex Le liked this
Regina Zibuck liked this
Taylor Levin liked this
Taylor Levin liked this
Roshni Patel liked this
Kieu Chau Vo liked this
Chee Jen Ngeh liked this
Stephanie Brito liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->