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Geochemistry in petroleum exploration 1

Geochemistry in petroleum exploration 1

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Published by: selasenuapah on Jan 22, 2011
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07/06/2013

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GEOCHEMISTRY
GEOCHEMISTRY IN PETROLEUM EXPLORATION
1
P
F
&
A
2
T
F
3
&
S
&
4
F
C
5
O
L
,
I
,
T
,
JCD 09/2003 1/7
 
GEOCHEMISTRY
1 INTRODUCTION1.1 P
HILOSOPHY
 
We must understand how oil & gas are formed and use this knowledge to locate new HC reservoirs
1.2 F
ORMATION OF OIL
&
GAS
 
50°C150°C120°C250°C
o
Example of natural gas characteristics according to their maturity:
Evolution C1/C2+IC4/nC4
Early diagenesis>0.97 >6Catagenesis <0.98 <1Metagenesis >0.97
o
Plants and algae’s are buried in fine grained sediments and absence of O
2
.
o
The organic matter is transformed in kerogen by low temperature chemical & biologicalreactions.
o
The large molecules of kerogen are the precursors of oil & gas.
1.2.1 D
 IAGENESIS 
 
o
Methanogen microorganisms transform debris in biogenic CH
4
 
1.2.2 C 
 ATAGENESIS 
 
o
Temperature rises and the bacterial action stops (temp >80°C)
o
Thermal reactions break the kerogen in smaller molecules called bitumen in an earlystage, then, with increasing maturity, to oil, condensate and finally gas.
1.2.3 M 
 ETAGENESIS 
 
o
The thermal process continues and creates smaller molecules: thermal CH
4
 
JCD 09/2003 2/7
 
GEOCHEMISTRY
1.2.4 M 
 IGRATION 
 
o
The HC are expelled from the source rock and migrate to a trap where it willaccumulate.
1.3 A
PPLICATION
 
3 types of geochemical models : organic facies, thermal maturity and volumetric.
2 ORGANIC FACIES2.1 T
HE CARBON CYCLE
 
Oxydation 
o
Most of organic matter is returned to the atmosphere through the carbon cycle (photosynthesis),only 1% of the photosynthetic production is preserved in sediments.
o
The oxidation in the sediments (down to 300m) will bring the Total Organic Carbon (TOC)value down to 0.1%.
2.2 F
ACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIC RICHNESS
 
The 3 factors influencing the amount of organic matter in a sediment are: productivity, preservationand dilution.
2.2.1 P 
 RODUCTIVITY 
 
o
Shallow water is the most productive environment (Plants + light: 20 000t/km
2
)
o
In high water zones, water upwelling can increase productivity
2.2.2 P 
 RESERVATION 
 
o
Preservation is the most important factor for organic richness. It is linked to:
Anoxia : linked to stagnancy, the sediments are very dark.
Oxygen Minimum Layer (OML): the O
2
request is higher than the production, due to decay of organic matter falling from the upper photic zone.
JCD 09/2003 3/7

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