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DK1321ch1

DK1321ch1

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11/10/2012

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Principles of Energy Conversion2
1.1
 
GENERAL BACKGROUND
The study of electromagnetic devices involves interactionsbetween elemental electric charges at a
macroscopic
level.Consequently, a crude atomic model, consisting of a heavypositively charged nucleus with a number of light negativelycharged electrons orbiting around it, is sufficient fordeveloping the concepts of electromagnetics. An electron isthen the elemental negative electric charge; a proton is theelemental positive charge. A 
charged body
has a surplus of either positive or negative elemental charges. Charged bodiesmay be considered as
 point charges
when the distancesbetween them are very large in comparison to their dimensions.The electric force, called the
Coulomb force,
between twostatic point charges is given by Coulomb’s equation:(1.1) where=the force in newtons (N) on the point charge
q
2
dueto the point charge
q
1
q
1
,
q
2
=the magnitudes in coulombs (C) of the two pointcharges
r
=the distance in meters (m) between the two chargesu
12
=a unit vector directed from
q
1
to
q
 2
=the permittivity in Farads per meter (F/m) of themedium in which charges are placedThe two charges will repel each other if they are of thesame sign; they will attract each other if they are of oppositesigns.Equation 1.1 may be written as:(1.2)The vector function called the
electric field 
caused bythe charge
q
1
 ,
is the force exerted by
q
1
 ,
on a unit charge placedat a distance
r
in the direction of k´
12
. This function may bedefined for all points in space surrounding the charge
q
1
.If there are several charges
q
1
 , q
 2
 ,…, q
 N 
present in space, theresulting electric field E at any point in space may be obtainedby vectorially adding the electric fields causedby these charges; that is, by using the principle of superpositionof electric fields.The Coulomb force on a charge
q
placed in an electricfield can then be written as:(1.3)If the two point charges
q
1
and
q
2
are in motion with respectto the observer, the force between them differs from theCoulomb force of Eq. 1.1, and is given by:(1.4) where:=the velocities of motion of the two point chargesin meters per second (m/s) µ=the permeability of the medium in henrys per meter(H/m)The second term in the force law of Eq. 1.4 is referred to as the
magnetic force
between the charges.The ratio of the maximum value of the magnetic force andthe Coulomb (electric) force is:(1.5)If the medium is free space, with permittivity of (8.854×10
•12
) and permeability of µ 
0
(4
π
×10
-7
), this ratio becomes:(1.6) where
c
0
is the velocity of light in free space. The magnitude of the magnetic force compared to the electric force is thus quitesmall for velocities much smaller than the speed of light. Whenthe charges are associated with moving electrons, however, themagnitude of the magnetic forces are quite significant.The magnetic force between two moving charges as givenin Eq. 1.4 can alternatively be written as:(1.7)The term in parentheses depends only on the properties of thepoint charge
q
1
 ,
and can be considered to represent a certainvector function existing around the charge
q
1
whenever itmoves with respect to the observer; if the charge is stationary,the function is zero. This vector function, termed the
magnetic flux density
produced by a single moving charge, is thusdefined as:(1.8)The magnetic force on charge
q
2
moving with a velocity v
2
can now be written in terms of the magnetic flux densityproduced by the moving charge
q
1
as:(1.9)From Eq. 1.9, the unit of measurement of is newton-secondper coulomb-meter (N-s/C-m), which is referred to as the
tesla
(T), also equivalent to one weber per square meter (Wb/m
2
).The portion of the space in which moving chargeexperiences a magnetic force described by Eq. 1.9 is called a
magnetic field 
. If there are several charges moving with respectto the observer with velocities much smaller than the speedof light, the total force on any charge may be obtained byvectorially adding forces exerted on it by each chargeindividually; that is, by using the principle of superpositionof magnetic forces. For the several moving charges
q
1
 , q
2
 ,…,
© 2004 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
 
Chapter 13
q
 N 
 ,
as shown in Fig. 1.1, the resulting flux density at thepoint
 P 
in space can be written as:(1.10)If there is now a charge
q
at
 P 
moving with a velocity thetotal magnetic force on the charge
q
is given by:(1.11)The sum of the Coulomb force and the magnetic force on amoving charge
q
can now be written as:(1.12)This is the classic Lorentz force on a charge.Equation 1.12 can be applied to obtain the forceexperienced by a current-carrying conductor placed in amagnetic field. Considering an elemental volume
δ
of conductor with
 N 
free charges per unit volume, the forceon it is given as:(1.13)The quantity with the units of coulombs per metersquared-secojid (C/m
2
-s), is commonly referred to as the currentdensity in amperes per square meter (A/m
2
). The force onthe elemental volume can then be written as:(1.14)and the total force on a given volume is then:(1.15)If the current is flowing through a thin wire, the aboveequation can be rewritten in conventional terms as follows.Taking the elemental volume as a small length of the conductorin Fig. 1.2, the current flow is along the length of the wire with:(1.16)For a closed-current-carrying loop, the force is then:(1.17)In a similar manner, Eq. 1.10 can be applied to obtain themagnetic field resulting from a steady current. Again considera small volume
δ
containing
 N 
free charges per unit volume, with
q
being the magnitude of each charge. If the volume
δ
is sufficiently small, all the charges can be considered to move with the same velocity The magnetic flux density at adistance
r
resulting from these charges can then be written as:(1.18)The flux density produced by a given volume is then:(1.19)For the current-carrying coil of Fig. 1.2, this expression canbe rewritten as:(1.20) A steady electric current
 I 
thus produces a static magneticfield at a macroscopic level.For any surface within a magnetic field, a scalar functiondenoted as
φ
defines the
magnetic flux
flowing across thesurface as:(1.21)The unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb). To help visualizethe magnetic field, magnetic flux lines and magnetic fluxtubes are used. A 
magnetic flux line
is drawn tangential toat all points. A 
magnetic flux tube
is tubular surface formed bymagnetic flux lines. Because by this definition is tangentialto the surface of a magnetic flux tube, the magnetic flux inany cross section along the length of a tube is constant. It iscustomary to draw magentic flux lines representing tubes of equal flux; the density of the flux lines is then a measure of the magnitude of the flux density vector .
Figure 1.1
A number of moving charges in space.
Figure 1.2
Magnetic field of a current-carrying coil.
© 2004 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

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