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2 Temperature measurement

2 Temperature measurement

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Published by Linda Melton

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Published by: Linda Melton on Jan 22, 2011
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2 Temperature measurements2.1 Temperature sensing2.1.1 State the points on an aircraft or aircraft component where temperature sensing isrequired for proper aircraft operation. (1)
Change in temperature is known as Delta T and it can be measured electrically (through electricalresistance), or monitored through the expansion of different materials such as the expansion andcontraction of various solids, liquids or gases. Sensors measure temperatures of windshields, brakes, cabin, air ducts, hydraulic lines, and interstage turbine temperatures. The sensor productsare designed to provide accurate and repeatable operation while maintaining configurationconformity to aircraft specifications.
Air temperature is one of the basic parameters used to establish data vital for monitoringof the aircraft and engines (as in the measurement of true airspeed, temperature control, thrustsettings, fuel/air ratio settings) and it is therefore necessary to provide a means of in-flightmeasurement.2.EGT and CHT multi-probes on reciprocating engines help provide troubleshooting onindividual cylinders.3.Engine instruments that indicate oil pressure, oil temperature, engine speed, exhaust gastemperature, and fuel flow are common to both turbine and reciprocating engines. However,there are some instruments that are unique to turbine engines. These instruments provideindications of engine pressure ratio, turbine discharge pressure, and torque. In addition, mostgas turbine engines have multiple temperature-sensing instruments, called thermocouples,which provide pilots with temperature readings in and around the turbine section.4.Variations of EGT systems bear different names based on the location of the temperaturesensors. Common turbine temperature sensing gauges include the turbine inlet temperature(TIT) gauge, turbine outlet temperature (TOT) gauge, interstage turbine temperature (ITT)gauge, and turbine gas temperature (TGT) gauge.5.Other applications where heat sensors might be applied in aircraft are:
Heated Windshields and canopy
Cabin Environment
Air Ducts
Engine Control Modules
Hydraulic Lines
Interstage turbine temperatures
Fuel and Oil temperatures
2.1.2 State the type of device that would be used in each area. (1)
OAT uses a bimetallic strip made of iron and brass. The brass expands faster and bendsthe strip which moves the pointer. OAT indicator is used in conjunction with a TASindicator. A knob on the TAS is turned to the temperature indicated on the OAT to obtainthe aircraft’s true airspeed.
Oil temperature systems use Wheatstone bridge or a ratiometer circuit (a ratiometer ismore reliable). Older types of oil temperature gauges use a vapour pressure or Bourdontube type instrument.
CHT and EGT gauges use thermocouples which produce a voltage as a result of increased temperatures.4.In certain types of turbojet, radiation pyrometry – the radiation by any body at anywavelength is a function of the temperature of that body and is known as the body’semissivity. If the emissivity is known, then by measuring the radiation the temperature of the body can be determined.
Resistance change instruments: Electrical resistance of some metals changes with their temperature. This property is used to measure relatively low temperatures as in oiltemperature, OAT, and carburetor air temperature.6.Wheatstone bridges and Ratiometers can be used in OAT, Carb air gauges, oil coolant anoil temperature measurement.
2.2 Non-electrical Types of Temperature-measuring Instruments2.2.1 Describe the construction and operation of the following measuring instruments:1.Solids expansion (bi-metallic strip)
Gas expansion (bourdon tube) (2)
 Bi-metallic Strip
A bi-metallic strip converts temperature changes into mechanical displacement as an on/off measurement. The device consists of two strips of different metals with different coefficients of thermal expansion. The strips or elements are joined together by rivets, by brazing or by welding(see Fig. 1). Differential expansion causes the element to bend one way when heated, and in theopposite direction when cooled below its nominal temperature. The metal with the higher coefficient of expansion is on the outer side of the curve whilst the element is heated and on theinner side when cooled. The element can be formed as a switch contact, called a
toopen or close a circuit when temperature limits are exceeded. Alternatively the element is formedin a spiral shape so that temperature changes cause a shaft to rotate; the typical application for this is an outside air temperature indicator. The sensing portion of the indicator projects throughwindscreen into the ambient air.
Figure 1: Bi-metallic strip principles (a) before heating, (b) after heating.
 Bourdon Tube
The Bourdon tube
was invented by Eugene Bourdon (1808–84), a French watchmaker andengineer. The pressure-sensing element is a tube with either a flat or elliptical section; it isformed as a spiral or curve, see Fig. 2.
Figure 2: Bourdon tube principles
One end of the tube is sealed and connected to a pointer mechanism; the open end is connected tothe fluid system via a pipe. As the applied pressure from the fluid system increases, the tube willtend to straighten out, while a reduced pressure will cause the tube to return to its original shape.This movement is transferred via the gear mechanism to move a pointer. The pointer movesacross a scale thereby providing a
of pressure. Materials used for the tube areselected for the pressure range being measured; these include phosphor bronze (0–1000 psi) and beryllium copper (0–10,000 psi). The Bourdon tube principle can also be used to remotelymeasure pressure, see Fig. 3. Used in fuel pressure gauges.
Figure 3: Bourdon tube/remote pressure sensing2.3 Thermocouples2.3.1
Outline the thermocouple system principle (Seebeck effect)(1)
The thermocouple principle is based on a
effect; this is a generic expression usedfor 
temperature-dependent electrical properties of matter.
Thermocouples use the potentialdifference that results
from the difference in temperature between two junctions
of dissimilar metals. This thermoelectric potential
difference is called the
Seebeck effect,
after theGerman physicist Thomas Seebeck (1770– 
1831). Two metal conductors made out of differentmaterials are welded at each end to form
see Fig. 4(a).

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