ISBN 978-0-230-54564-9ISSN 0306–7742
A National Statistics publication
National Statistics are produced to high professional standards set outin the National Statistics Code of Practice. They are produced free frompolitical inﬂuence.Not all the statistics contained within this publication are nationalstatistics because it is a compilation from various sources.
The Ofﬁce for National Statistics
The Ofﬁce for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive ofﬁce of the UKStatistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directlyto Parliament. ONS is the UK government’s single largest statisticalproducer. It compiles information about the UK’s society and economywhich provides evidence for policy and decision-making and in theallocation of resources.The Director of the ONS is also the National Statistician.
This publication ﬁrst published 2008 by Palgrave Macmillan,Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS and 175 Fifth Avenue,New York, NY 10010, USACompanies and representatives throughout the world.Palgrave Macmillan is the global academic imprint of the PalgraveMacmillan division of St. Martin’s Press, LLC and of Palgrave MacmillanLtd. Macmillan® is a registered trademark in the United States,United Kingdom and other countries. Palgrave is a registered trademarkin the European Union and other countries.A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 117 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08
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© Crown copyright 2008Published with the permission of the Ofﬁce for Public SectorInformation (OPSI)You may use this publication (excluding logos) free of charge in anyformat for research, private study or internal circulation within anorganisation providing it is used accurately and not in a misleadingcontext. The material must be acknowledged as Crown copyright andyou must give the title of the source publication. Where we haveidentiﬁed any third party copyright material you will need to obtainpermission from the copyright holders concerned.For re-use of this material you must apply for a Click-Use Public SectorInformation (PSI) Licence from:Ofﬁce of Public Sector Information, Crown Copyright Licensing andPublic Sector Information, St Clements House, 2–16 Colegate,Norwich NR3 1BQTel: 01603 621000
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