Performance Characteristics, Optimization, and Error Tolerances of a4nm FEL Based on the SLAC Linac
K.-J. Kim, M. XieLawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720E. T. ScharlemannLawrence Liver-more National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550C. Pellegrini and C. TravishDepartment of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024
A 4nm free electron laser (FEL) operating in SelfAmplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE), and using theSLAC linac as a driver has been extensively studiedusing the FRED3D[l] and TDA3D codes. Using a 7GeV beam with a normalized rms emittance of 3 mm-mrad and a peak current of 2500 A, obtained bylongitudinal bunch compression, the FEL can provideabout 20 GWatt of peak power, in a subpicosecondpulse. The FEL saturation length is about 60 m. Strongfocusing in both planes is provided throughout theundulator by a FODO quadrupole system. We havestudied the system gain, its optimization and FELtolerance to beam parameter changes, wiggler errors andmisalignments.
The base set of parameters for the SLAC basedx-ray FEL.YEnergy (m&)
The promise of producing bright, coherent, shortwavelength XUV and X-ray radiation has yet to befulfilled. Free electron lasers have long been touted asthe right tool for this task. Yet, in the nearly twentyyears since the first operation of the FEL, the shortwavelength challenge has not been met because of thelimitations on beam brightness. Now it seems possible toproduce copious amounts of short wavelength radiationusing technology developed in the last few years [3,4,5].The primary distinguishing feature of this device is theelectron beam. A high current, low emittance (highbrightness) beam produced by an RF photocathode gunis accelerated to high energy (multi GeV) using a portionof the SLAC linac. This beam is what distinguishes thisdesign from other potential x-ray FEL schemes (61.A large parameter space was explored in order tooptimize the FEL. The constraints where to maximize theoutput peak power while restricting beam and undulatorparameters to state of the art. A three dimensionalanalytic model  was used to initially explore theparameter space while particle simulations where usedto refine the choices. Table 1 lists a set of baseparameters. Subsequent sections of this paper presentFEL performance as functions of beam and undulatorparameters. The ma@ objective here is to establish theFEL tolerances with respect to changes in beam andundulator parameters and alignment errors.EnEmittance normalized(mm-mrad)Peak Current (A)Pulse Length (fs)oEUncorrelated energy spread
Undulator parameterhu Undulator period (cm)h Optical wavelength (nm)nFEL parameter3 x 10-625001604 x 10-468.341.7 x 10-3
Beam Parameter Studies
The sensitivity of the FEL output to input beamparameters is paramount. The results presented beloware given in terms of the power gain length, LgP(z) = Poez/L,(1)where P is the power as a function of the distance downthe FEL, z, and PO is the input power. The effects ofelectron beam and undulator parameters on the FELperformance have been described by a 1-D model  andby a full 3-D analysis (reviewed in Ref. (51).
The usual constraint on the (unnormalized)beam emittance is that it be smaller than the wavelengthof radiation divided by four pi (E<~./~TC).Typically, thegain length of a device starts to increase dramaticallywhen this limit is violated. Conversely, when theemittance is reduced, the gain length shortens. The totaloutput power at saturation is not dependent on theemittance until the limit is strongly violated. This laststatement is true for a faced strength (beta function)focusing channel. It is possible to optimize the focusingstrength for a given emittance .For the 4nm case of interest here, a normalizedbeam emittance of 4.5 x 10e6 mm-mrad is required bythe limit. As Figure 1 shows, the power gain lengthincreases rapidly after the limit is exceeded.0-7803-1203-l/93503.00 0 1993
© 1993 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this materialfor advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to serversor lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.