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Published by: Particle Beam Physics Lab on Jan 23, 2011
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Performance Characteristics, Optimization, and Error Tolerances of a4nm FEL Based on the SLAC Linac
K.-J. Kim, M. XieLawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720E. T. ScharlemannLawrence Liver-more National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550C. Pellegrini and C. TravishDepartment of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024
A 4nm free electron laser (FEL) operating in SelfAmplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE), and using theSLAC linac as a driver has been extensively studiedusing the FRED3D[l] and TDA3D[2] codes. Using a 7GeV beam with a normalized rms emittance of 3 mm-mrad and a peak current of 2500 A, obtained bylongitudinal bunch compression, the FEL can provideabout 20 GWatt of peak power, in a subpicosecondpulse. The FEL saturation length is about 60 m. Strongfocusing in both planes is provided throughout theundulator by a FODO quadrupole system. We havestudied the system gain, its optimization and FELtolerance to beam parameter changes, wiggler errors andmisalignments.
Table 1:
The base set of parameters for the SLAC basedx-ray FEL.YEnergy (m&)
The promise of producing bright, coherent, shortwavelength XUV and X-ray radiation has yet to befulfilled. Free electron lasers have long been touted asthe right tool for this task. Yet, in the nearly twentyyears since the first operation of the FEL, the shortwavelength challenge has not been met because of thelimitations on beam brightness. Now it seems possible toproduce copious amounts of short wavelength radiationusing technology developed in the last few years [3,4,5].The primary distinguishing feature of this device is theelectron beam. A high current, low emittance (highbrightness) beam produced by an RF photocathode gunis accelerated to high energy (multi GeV) using a portionof the SLAC linac. This beam is what distinguishes thisdesign from other potential x-ray FEL schemes (61.A large parameter space was explored in order tooptimize the FEL. The constraints where to maximize theoutput peak power while restricting beam and undulatorparameters to state of the art. A three dimensionalanalytic model [7] was used to initially explore theparameter space while particle simulations where usedto refine the choices. Table 1 lists a set of baseparameters. Subsequent sections of this paper presentFEL performance as functions of beam and undulatorparameters. The ma@ objective here is to establish theFEL tolerances with respect to changes in beam andundulator parameters and alignment errors.EnEmittance normalized(mm-mrad)Peak Current (A)Pulse Length (fs)oEUncorrelated energy spread
Undulator parameterhu Undulator period (cm)h Optical wavelength (nm)nFEL parameter3 x 10-625001604 x 10-468.341.7 x 10-3
Beam Parameter Studies
The sensitivity of the FEL output to input beamparameters is paramount. The results presented beloware given in terms of the power gain length, LgP(z) = Poez/L,(1)where P is the power as a function of the distance downthe FEL, z, and PO is the input power. The effects ofelectron beam and undulator parameters on the FELperformance have been described by a 1-D model [3] andby a full 3-D analysis (reviewed in Ref. (51).
The usual constraint on the (unnormalized)beam emittance is that it be smaller than the wavelengthof radiation divided by four pi (E<~./~TC).Typically, thegain length of a device starts to increase dramaticallywhen this limit is violated. Conversely, when theemittance is reduced, the gain length shortens. The totaloutput power at saturation is not dependent on theemittance until the limit is strongly violated. This laststatement is true for a faced strength (beta function)focusing channel. It is possible to optimize the focusingstrength for a given emittance .For the 4nm case of interest here, a normalizedbeam emittance of 4.5 x 10e6 mm-mrad is required bythe limit. As Figure 1 shows, the power gain lengthincreases rapidly after the limit is exceeded.0-7803-1203-l/93503.00 0 1993
© 1993 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this materialfor advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to serversor lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.
PAC 1993
4.0 4 - --.i1 -.-.wAz 3.5 - --..--.--..-..-..-..........~.........-.---.-.-.--.-------~----.----.-................- -
2.5'Zo 2.05Eg 1.51.01O'B
Figure 1: The power gain length for various emittances.Note that the emittance is a log scale.
Energy Spread
The energy spread is characterized in two ways:the correlated and the uncorrelated energy spread. FELperformance (gain length) is affected by the uncorrelatedenergy spread which is primarily determined by theelectron source. The theoretical limit is that cr~<p. Thetransport line and bunch compressors must preserve theminimum uncorrelated energy spread. The correlatedenergy spread is determined by the bunch compressorsystem and wakefields in the linac [8]. The correlatedenergy spread affects the radiation bandwidth but notthe gain length. Users and experiments have varyingrequirements on the output radiation line width. Someof these requirements can best be met by using opticalmethods such as monochromators near the experiment.Effects of the uncorrelated energy spread have beeninvestigated in the range where o~<p.As Figure 2 shows, the saturation levels arenearly equal for a wide range of enera spreads.However, the gain length is adversely affected by anenergy spread much larger than specified by the baseparameters.Figure 2: The power gain curves are shown as afunction of the distance along the undulator for variousuncorrelated energy spreads.
Beam Peak Current
Fluctuations in the electron beam peak currentdepend strongly on the pulse length and chargevariations. Not only does the source have to be stable,but so does the compression scheme. Hence, it isimportant that the FEL not be strongly sensitive tovariations about the design current. Simulations revealthat, again at saturation, the output level is nearlyidentical for a wide range of currents (see Figure 3). Ofcourse, the gain length varies with the current, but notso much as to pose a problem.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 60
Figure 3: Power gain along the undulator for
peak beam currents.
The SLAC X-ray FEL design calls for anundulator approximately 60 meters in length. Thenatural beta function of the undulator is 56 meters (andthis is only in one plane) which gives a very large gainlength. Additional focusing is required. Simulationsshow that there is substantial improvement for a betafunction, p,- 10 meters and optimum performance forp-5 meters 191.This is in agreement with the theoreticallimit that
External quadrupole FODO lattice canprovide beta functions of -10 meters with conventionalmagnets. Performance for various drift and focusinglengths have been done. A period of 60 cm drifts and 60cm quads seems close to optimal in terms of gain lengthand number of quads required. Numerous ideas havebeen reviewed in the course of this study. Extensivesimulations have been performed on the variousconcepts 181. Alternative schemes which might offermuch higher field gradients (-50-100 T/x$ are beinginvestigated [lo]. Such gradients would allow for betafunctions of -5 meters, closer to the optimal.
Undulator Tolerances
Propagation of an electron beam through a longundulator has already been proven Ill]. The beamalignment required is proportional to the beam radius.As beam energy goes up, radius decreases. At -7 CeVand 4 nm the beam radius is -5Opm and the requiredmechanical tolerances are -25pm, similar to those forthe next linear collider [12]. The undulator must alsosatisfy tight magnetic tolerances.1534
PAC 1993

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