HIGH-BRIGHTNESS BEAMS FROM A LIGHT SOURCE INJECTOR:THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCELOW-ENERGY UNDULATOR TEST LINE LINAC
G. Travish, S. Biedron, M. Borland, M. Hahne, K. Harkay, J. W. Lewellen, A. Lumpkin,S. Milton, N. Sereno, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439
* Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38
The use of existing linacs, and in particular light sourceinjectors, for free-electron laser (FEL) experiments isbecoming more common due to the desire to test FELs atever shorter wavelengths. The high-brightness, high-current beams required by high-gain FELs imposetechnical specifications that most existing linacs were notdesigned to meet. Moreover, the need for specializeddiagnostics, especially shot-to-shot data acquisition,demands substantial modification and upgrade of conventional linacs. Improvements have been made to theAdvanced Photon Source (APS) injector linac in order toproduce and characterize high-brightness beams.Specifically, effort has been directed at generating beamssuitable for use in the low-energy undulator test line(LEUTL) FEL in support of fourth-generation lightsource research. The enhancements to the linac technicaland diagnostic capabilities that allowed for self-amplifiedspontaneous emission (SASE) operation of the FEL at530 nm are described. Recent results, including details ontechnical systems improvements and electron beammeasurement techniques, will be discussed. The linac iscapable of accelerating beams to over 650 MeV. Thenominal FEL beam parameters used are as follows:217 MeV energy; 0.1–0.2% rms energy spread; 4–8 µmnormalized rms emittance; 80–120 A peak current from a0.2–0.7 nC charge at a 2–7 ps FWHM bunch.
The low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electronlaser (FEL) project has as its primary goal theidentification and study of issues relevant to linac-basedfourth-generation x-ray light sources , includingverifying the behavior of the SASE FEL with varyingelectron beam parameters. Therefore, good characterizationand control of the electron beam is critical to the successof the project.The LEUTL project has taken a conservativeapproach towards producing a drive beam for the SASEFEL. The project began with the available APS injectorand made numerous improvements and additions to thesystem over the past 2+ years to allow for the production,preservation, and measurement of high-brightness beams.A description of the system, starting at the head of thelinac, follows.In collaboration with the Accelerator Test Facility(ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) a 1.6-cell, S-band photocathode (PC) rf gun and emittancecompensation solenoid  was installed at the near-optimal drift distance to the existing linac. Thephotoinjector replaced an existing low peak current, largeenergy spread DC thermionic gun. The ATF PC gun hasbeen well characterized and proven in several installationsaround the world, and is intended to produce beams of over 100-A peak current with emittances below 5 µm, asopposed to the DC gun that produced < 75-A peak current and > 100-µm emittances.A drive laser for the photocathode gun was purchasedcommercially, installed into a laser room constructedadjacent to the linac tunnel, and integrated into the APScontrol system . An optical transport line delivers thelaser either into the APS linac enclosure or into an rf testarea adjacent to the laser room.The APS injector linac is constructed from standardSLAC-type traveling-wave disk-loaded linac sections.One linac section immediately following the gun ispowered by a single klystron; the remaining twelve linacsections are grouped into three sectors, each of which ispowered by a single klystron equipped with SLEDcavities. Two thermionic-cathode rf guns provideredundant injection capability for the APS storage ring, and one of the guns has performance sufficient toallow limited FEL studies. Improvements made to thelinac for LEUTL (as well as APS operations) includerearranging the focusing lattice and realigning all linacsections and magnets. Upgrades made to the rf systemimproved the power stability from over 7% (pk-pk overseveral seconds) to better than 2%, and phase stabilityfrom several degrees to about 2 degrees over short timeperiods (seconds). Further improvements to the focusinglattice and the rf system are ongoing.The APS linac and LEUTL transport lines containfour energy spectrometers, a three-screen emittancemeasurement region, and several metal foils for providinglight to optical transition-radiation (OTR) and coherenttransition-radiation (CTR) diagnostics. The undulator hallproper contains additional diagnostics stations for boththe electron beam and the photon beam generated by theFEL interaction. The linac diagnostics are described indetail in section 4, but first we discuss the project goalsand design parameters.
2 PROJECT GOALS
The LEUTL FEL operates in high-gain SASE mode,generating light from 530 nm down to less than 100 nm.A principal portion of the FEL studies is beingdevoted to experimental verification of scaling lawsderived from SASE FEL theory, such as the variation of output power with beam parameter changes. Theoretical
XX International Linac Conference, Monterey, California899THC19