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K Energy Efficiency in Electrical Distribution

K Energy Efficiency in Electrical Distribution

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Published by: Thành Vinh Nguyễn Trịnh on Jan 23, 2011
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Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2010
K
   ©   S  c   h  n  e   i   d  e  r   E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c  -  a   l   l  r   i  g   h   t  s  r  e  s  e  r  v  e   d
Chapter KEnergy eciencyin electrical distribution
Contents
 Introduction K2Energy eciency and electricity K3
2.1 An international appetite or regulation K32.2 NF EN 15232 standard K32.3 How to achieve energy eciency K3
 Diagnosis through electrical measurement K6
 
3.1 Electrical measurements K63.2 Adapted measuring instruments K6
 Energy saving opportunities K8
 
4.1 Motors K84.2 Speed variation K94.3 Control K114.4 Lighting K124.5 Power actor correction and harmonic ltering K144.6 Load management K154.7 Communication and inormation systems K164.8 Designing inormation and monitoring systems K19
 How to evaluate energy savings K24
5.1 IPMVP and EVO procedures K245.2 Achieving sustainable perormance K26
 
 
2
 
3
 
4
 
5
 
EIG_chap_K-2010.indb 108/12/2009 10:03:02
 
Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2010
K - Energy eciency in electrical distribution
K2
   ©   S  c   h  n  e   i   d  e  r   E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c  -  a   l   l  r   i  g   h   t  s  r  e  s  e  r  v  e   d
 Introduction
The aim o this chapter is to acilitate communication between the designers oelectrical installations and the energy consumers who use them. Consumersrequently require advice on how best to reduce consumption and the amount theyspend on energy.While there are a number o actors infuencing attitudes and opinions towardsenergy eciency, particularly the increasing cost o energy and a growing awarenesso our responsibilities towards the environment, legislation probably has the greatestimpact on changing behaviour and practices. Various governments across the worldare setting themselves energy saving targets and passing regulations to ensurethese are met. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a global target set at theKyoto Earth Summit in 1997 and was nally ratied by 169 countries in December2006.Under the Kyoto Protocol industrialised countries have agreed to reduce theircollective emissions o greenhouse gases by 5.2% compared to the year 1990between 2008 and 2012 (this represents a 29% reduction in terms o the emissionslevels expected or 2012 prior to the Protocol). One o Europe’s targets is a 20%reduction in or CO2 by 2020. Given that 27% o CO2 emissions originate romtransport, 16% rom residential buildings, 8% rom the service sector and 49% romindustry proper, up to 50% o emissions can be attributed to electricity consumptionassociated with residential and commercial buildings. Moreover, as the use odomestic appliances and other equipment such as ventilation and air conditioningsystems increases, electricity consumption is rising at a aster rate than other ormso energy.Against this background, the ollowing conditions will have to be satised in order toachieve a 20% reduction in consumption by 2020:
b
All new buildings constructed must consume 50% less energy.
b
1 in 10 existing buildings must reduce consumption by 30% each year.As ar as most countries are concerned, it is clear that 80% o the buildings whichwill be standing in 2020 have already been constructed. The reurbishment oexisting building stock and improving energy management is vital in meetingemission reduction targets. Given that in the western world, most buildings havealready undergone thermal perormance upgrades such as cavity wall insulation,lot insulation and double-glazing, the only potential or urther savings lies inreducing the amount o energy consumed. Action to improve the thermal and energyperormance o existing buildings will almost certainly become compulsory in order tomeet the targets that have been set out.Technology exists to help promote energy eciency on many levels, rom reducingelectricity consumption to managing other energy sources more eciently. Ambitiousregulatory measures may be required to ensure these technologies are adoptedquickly enough to achieve the 2020 targets.
EIG_chap_K-2010.indb 208/12/2009 10:03:02
 
K3
Schneider Electric - Electrical installation guide 2010
   ©   S  c   h  n  e   i   d  e  r   E   l  e  c   t  r   i  c  -  a   l   l  r   i  g   h   t  s  r  e  s  e  r  v  e   d
K - Energy eciency in electrical distribution
Energy saving regulations aect all buildings,both new and existing, as well as their electrical installations.
2 Energy eciency andelectricity
2. Une réglementation volontariste partout dans lemonde
The Kyoto Protocol saw governments start to set out clear commitments in terms oquantitative targets and specic agendas or reducing CO
2
emissions.In addition to their Kyoto obligations, many countries have set themselves xed,long-term targets in line with the latest EEIG (European Economic Interest Group)recommendations to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention onClimate Change) regarding energy saving and based on stabilising CO
2
levels.The European Union is setting a good example with its rm commitment, signedby all the national EU leaders in March 2007, to a 20% reduction by 2020. Knownas 3x20, this agreement aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 20%, improve energyeciency by 20% and increase the contribution made by renewable energies to 20%.Some European Countries are looking at a 50% reduction by 2050. Reaching thesetargets, however, wiII require signicant changes, with governments stepping up theiruse o regulations, legislation and standardisation.Across the world, legislation and regulations are serving to underline stakeholderobligations and put taxation and nancial structures in place.
b
In the USA
v
The Energy Policy Act o 2005,
v
Construction regulations,
v
Energy regulations (10CFR434),
v
Energy management programmes or various states (10CFR420),
v
Rules or energy conservation or consumer products (10CFR430).
b
In China
v
Energy conservation law,
v
Architecture law (energy eciency and construction),
v
lRenewable energy law,
v
1000 major energy conservation programmes or industry dans l’Union Européenne
b
In the European Union
v
The EU Emission Trading Scheme
v
The Energy Perormance o Building Directive
v
The Energy Using Product Directive
v
The Energy End-use Eciency and Energy Services Directive.
2.2 see
(Guide de l’installation électrique)
2.3 How to achieve energy eciency
Whilst it is currently possible to obtain energy savings o up to 30%, this potentialreduction can only really be understood in terms o the dierences which existbetween active and passive orms o energy eciency.
Active and passive energy eciency
Passive energy eciency is achieved by such measures as reducing heat loss andusing equipment which requires little energy. Active energy eciency is achieved byputting in place an inrastructure or measuring, monitoring and controlling energyuse with a view to making lasting changes.TIt is possible to build on the savings achieved here by perorming analyses andintroducing more suitable remedial measures. For example, although savings obetween 5% and 15% may be obtained by improving how installations are used orby optimising the equipment itsel (decommissioning redundant systems, adjustingmotors and heating), more signicant savings can also be achieved.
v
Up to 40% on energy or motors by using control and automation mechanisms tomanage motorised systems,
v
Up to 30% on lighting by introducing an automated management mechanismbased on optimal use.It is important to remember, however, that savings may be lost through.
b
Unplanned/unmanaged downtime aecting equipment and processes
b
A lack o automation/adjustment mechanisms (motors, heating)
b
A ailure to ensure energy saving measures are adopted at all times.
EIG_chap_K-2010.indb 308/12/2009 10:03:02

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