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Integrated Science, Chapter Twenty-One Outline

Integrated Science, Chapter Twenty-One Outline

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Published by: Julie on Jan 23, 2011
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Katie ColasonoMay 10, 20095th period
Chapter 21 outline Weathering and Soil
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physical and chemical processes that involve the interaction of air, water, and rock 
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 weathering- process of physical or chemical breakdown of a material at or near Earth'ssurface
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factors that influence: water or air, the nature of the material being weathered, climateand time
Mechanical Weathering
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 vaiables: nature of material being weathered, climate, and time
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 when water freezes inside a rock contain this water, it expands and cracks apart. whichforces the rock apart, and this is called frost wedging
Chemical Weathering
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forms new ompounds and releases elements into the environment
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 which enrich soil and nourish plants
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oxidation is a chemical weathering process
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iron that is present in minerals is released through weathering and combines with oxygento form iron oxides
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unstable iron released by weathering forms stable hematite
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 weathering of feldspar minerals into clay minerals is an imporant process for continentalrocks
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starts with a common rock-forming mineral and ends with minerals that are common incontinental sediment and soil
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 which often forms quartz cement
Soil
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a mixture of weathered rock, organic mtter, water and air that is capable of supportinplant life
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originates from waethering of the bedrock beneath it or from materials transported fromanother location
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each horizon has its own unique textur and color, called a profile
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horizons present depend on the composition of the parent bedrock, climate, and the kindand amount of organisms on the surface
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process of diccolbing soluble elements and transportin them deeper into the soil is calledleaching
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alot of material accumulates that water can't easily penetrate this zone, B horizon, and isreferred to as hardpan
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E and B horizon are often referred to as the subsoil
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many different types of soil,climates is the basis to characterize the soils
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seperated by compostion and physical properties
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rivers and glaciers are important transporting agents for soils
 
 
Soil Conservation
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plants and animals remove elements from soul
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soil depletion is a serious agricultural problem in many regions
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it is often corrected by addition of fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorous, orpotassium
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crop rotation helps preserve the quality of souls, prevents erosion, reduces the rick of diseases and attack by pests
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an alternative is to allow the soil to rest, called going fallow, by not planting crops
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 which gives the soul time to replentish some of its lost nutrients
Shaping the Landscape
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erosion- the removal of surface marterial through the processes of weathering
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sediment transport- the movemtn of eroded materials from one place to another by  water, wind, and/or glaciers
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depostiion- a transporting agent drops its load of eroded material
Running Water
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also causes erosion, on a downward force
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causes V-shaped valleys
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small streams called tributairs flow into even larger streams.
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all of the land area that gathers water for a mjor river is the river's drainage basin
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drainage divide ix a boundary line separteing distance drainage basins
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surface water flows downhill, water erodes ther surface, creating its own path or followingexistin paths called channels
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mouth of a stream that empties in to a body of water a fan-shaped sediment deposit calleda delt will form
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 braniching channels, called distributairs
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alluvial fans, form where the mouth of a stream enters dry land
Glaciers
 
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leave deep grooves or striation, give clues about the direction the ice was moving
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stream divides are roded into sharp ridges called aretes
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 when ice first accumulates , a bowl-shaped depression called a crique is fromed
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large rides of till that accumulate at the edge of a glacier are called moraines
 Wind
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removal of small particles by wind, leaving heavier particles behind, is caled deflation
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fine silt from glacial outwash plains or deserts is picked up and depostied as thick,unlayered depostis called loess
 Wave Action
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longshore current- movement of water parallet to the shoreline
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sandbar that seals off a bay from the open ocean is called a baymouth bar
The Water Cycle
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infiltration- the process by which water enters Earth to become groundwater below the

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