channel with other users (spectrum sharing), and (4) vacate the channel when a licensed user is detected (spectrum mobility) .Although cognitive radio was initially thought of as a software-defined radio (SDR)extension, most of the research work is currently focusing on Spectrum Sensing CognitiveRadio. The essential problem of Spectrum Sensing Cognitive Radio is in designing highquality spectrum sensing devices and algorithms for exchanging spectrum sensing data between nodes. A cognitive radio should monitor the available spectrum bands, capture their information, and then detect the spectrum holes. Hence, spectrum sensing is a key enablingtechnology in cognitive radio networks. In spectrum sensing, the detection accuracy has been considered as the most important factor to determine the performance of cognitiveradio networks. However, in reality, RF front-end of CR users cannot differentiate the primary user signals and CR user signals. In case of the energy detection, widely used inspectrum sensing, transmission and sensing cannot be performed at the same time. Thus,during the sensing (observation time), all CR users should stop their transmissions and keepquiet. However, the periodic spectrum sensing should consider following design issues:
In the periodic sensing, interference is related to not onlysensing accuracy depending on observation time but also the CR transmission timeand traffic statistics.
The main objective of cognitive radio is the efficient use of spectrum resources. However, since CR users cannot transmit during the sensing,spectrum efficiency will be degraded inevitably.The cognitive radio should adapt its transmission parameters so that it can avoid theinterference from primary system in order to guarantee its own QoS while it minimizes theinterference to the primary system.
Minimizing the interference to the primary system in cognitive radio is a challenging task since exact traffic pattern and receiver position of the primary system are generally unknownto the cognitive radio transmitter. Such an interference minimization, i.e., keeping highetiquette towards the primary system, is a crucial requirement for cognitive radio to beallowed to operate in the same frequency band as the primary system.To investigate mechanisms for control the interference level to the primary receiver withsome packet transmission strategies in MAC level. For example, one possible method tokeep high etiquette of the cognitive radio is to always use short packet and after every short- packet transmission, make carrier-sense. Only if the carrier is free, it continues to transmitshort packet. If it detects the transmission of primary user, it stops the transmission. Withthis method, the cognitive radio can control the interference to the primary users, and keephigh etiquette. However, such a strategy can result in the degradation of system performancefor cognitive radio due to large overhead and frequent carrier sensing. Furthermore, thisstrategy cannot completely eliminate the interference to the primary system, and could resultin an unacceptable interference to the primary system.