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Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem using the Mean Proportional

# Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem using the Mean Proportional

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12/05/2012

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Robert Chasse
MAT 411LEARNING EXPERIENCE FORMAT
Topic/Title: Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem using the Mean Proportional Grade Level: Geometry 1 40-45 minute class period  Materials: StrandsContent StrandsGeometry Strand
G.G.45 Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about similar trianglesG.G.46 Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about proportionalrelationships among the segments of the sides of the triangle, givenone or more lines parallel to one side of a triangle and intersecting theother two sides of the triangleG.G.47 Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about meanproportionality:
o
the altitude to the hypotenuse of a right triangle is the meanproportional betweenthe two segments along the hypotenuse
o
the altitude to the hypotenuse of a right triangle divides thehypotenuse so thateither leg of the right triangle is the mean proportional between thehypotenuse and segment of the hypotenuse adjacent to that leg
Process StrandsProblem Solving
G.PS.1 Use a variety of problem solving strategies to understand newmathematical contentG.PS.2 Observe and explain patterns to formulate generalizationsand conjecturesG.PS.3 Use multiple representations to represent and explainproblem situations (e.g., spatial, geometric, verbal, numeric,algebraic, and graphical representations)G.PS.4 Construct various types of reasoning, arguments, justifications and methods of proof for problemsReasoning and Proof G.RP.1 Recognize that mathematical ideas can be supported by a

variety of strategiesG.RP.2 Recognize and verify, where appropriate, geometricrelationships of perpendicularity, parallelism, congruence, andsimilarity, using algebraic strategiesG.RP.5 Present correct mathematical arguments in a variety of formsG.RP.7 Construct a proof using a variety of methods (e.g., deductive,analytic, transformational)G.RP.8 Devise ways to verify results or use counterexamples to refuteincorrect statementsCommunicationG.CM.1 Communicate verbally and in writing a correct, complete,coherent, and clear design (outline) and explanation for the stepsused in solving a problemG.CM.2 Use mathematical representations to communicate withappropriate accuracy, including numerical tables, formulas, functions,equations, charts, graphs, and diagramsG.CM.3 Present organized mathematical ideas with the use of appropriate standard notations, including the use of symbols andother representations when sharing an idea in verbal and writtenformG.CM.5 Communicate logical arguments clearly, showing why aresult makes sense and why the reasoning is validG.CM.6 Support or reject arguments or questions raised by othersaboutthe correctness of mathematical workG.CM.7 Read and listen for logical understanding of mathematicalthinking shared by other studentsG.CM.8 Reflect on strategies of others in relation to one’s ownstrategyG.CM.9 Formulate mathematical questions that elicit, extend, orchallenge strategies, solutions, and/or conjectures of othersG.CM.10 Use correct mathematical language in developingmathematical questions that elicit, extend, or challenge other students’conjectures

G.CM.11 Understand and use appropriate language, representations,and terminology when describing objects, relationships, mathematicalsolutions, and geometric diagramsRepresentationG.R.1 Use physical objects, diagrams, charts, tables, graphs,symbols, equations, or objects created using technology asrepresentations of mathematical conceptsG.R.2 Recognize, compare, and use an array of representationalformsG.R.3 Use representation as a tool for exploring and understandingmathematical ideasG.R.7 Use mathematics to show and understand social phenomena(e.g., determine if conclusions from another person’s argumenthave a logical foundation)G.R.8 Use mathematics to show and understand mathematicalphenomena

(e.g., use investigation, discovery, conjecture, reasoning,arguments, justification and proofs to validate that the two baseangles of an isosceles triangle are congruent)
Anticipatory Set DiscussionStudents will be asked to define the Pythagoreantheorem. Does anyone else know any other ways of deriving the formula? Can someone please define themean and what a proportion is? After working through these wordsand everyone's definitions, ask someone to pleasecome to the board to draw a right triangle and thePythagorean theorem.Learning Activity
The lesson will then begin with definitions given to a, b, and c. We will thengive a formal definition to the mean proportional which is, “The meanproportional of two positive numbers
a
and
b
is the positive number
x
such that
.
When solving for x
,
.” One thing to notice is that our x variable appears twice inour proportion, which is the mean, this will help us derive the Pythagoreantheorem. Using the projector, draw figures to represent the mean andextremes. The first theorem to help us states that we can drop a perpendicularbisector from our triangle at point C which will intersect perpendicular on thesegment AB which is our hypotenuse. This altitude is the mean proportionalbetween two new segments created on the hypotenuse. Using the overhead