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Pressman - Visions in Collision - What Happened at Camp David & Taba

Pressman - Visions in Collision - What Happened at Camp David & Taba

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Published by: Matan Lurey on Jan 25, 2011
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 M
any ofªcials and an-alysts have inaccurately portrayed the Israeli-Palestinian-U.S. summit at CampDavid in July 2000 and subsequent negotiations. Based on this inaccurate por-trayal, a number of observers have argued that a negotiated settlement to theIsraeli-Palestinian conºict is not possible at this time. This article addresses theinaccuracies of this dominant narrative and offers a different understanding ofIsraeli-Palestinian relations in 2000 (and January 2001) that, in turn, suggeststhat the door to Israeli-Palestinian political talks is open.After the Camp David summit, Israel and some U.S. ofªcials told a storyabout what happened that was widely accepted in Israel and the United States.According to this dominant version of the events at Camp David, Israeli PrimeMinister Ehud Barak made a generous offer to the Palestinian negotiators whorejected it without even putting forth a counterproposal. At Camp David,Barak offered a Palestinian state in the Gaza Strip and more than 90 percent ofthe West Bank, a Palestinian capital in East Jerusalem, shared control of theTemple Mount/Noble Sanctuary in Jerusalem’s Old City, and a commitment towithdraw many Israeli settlements from the West Bank. The Israeli versioncontinues that Palestinian leaders rejected Barak’s offer and the diplomaticroute to a peaceful settlement of the Arab-Israeli conºict. Instead, they tried todestroy Israel by pressing throughout the Israeli-Palestinian talks for the re-turn of millions of Palestinian refugees to Israel and by launching the secondintifada, or uprising, in September 2000.
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Visions in Collision
 VisionsinCollision
Jeremy Pressman
What Happened at Camp Davidand Taba?
 International Security,
Vol. 28, No. 2 (Fall 2003), pp. 5–43© 2003 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
5
 Jeremy Pressman is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Con-necticut, Storrs, Connecticut.
I would like to thank Boaz Atzili, Michal Ben Josef-Hirsch, Robert Blecher, Waleed Hazbun, ScottLasensky, Sarah Kenyon Lischer, Stephen Van Evera, Cory Welt, Amos Zehavi, and the anony-mous reviewers for helpful comments on previous drafts. An earlier version of this article was pre-sented at the 2002 annual meeting of the American Political Science Association in Boston,Massachusetts. I am grateful for the support of the Belfer Center for Science and InternationalAffairs at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.1. The Israeli version refers to the recounting of events since the end of the Camp David summit byEhud Barak, the Israeli prime minister, and his senior negotiators such as Shlomo Ben-Ami andGilead Sher; it is also reºected in ofªcial statements by the Israeli ministry of foreign affairs andthe Israel Defense Forces. The U.S. version is similar to the Israeli one and refers to events as seen by President Bill Clinton, U.S. special envoy to the Middle East Dennis Ross, Assistant Secretary of
 
The Palestinian version of the Camp David summit, other high-level Israeli-Palestinian talks, and the outbreak of the second intifada has been far lessinºuential in Israel and the United States. According to Palestinian negotiators,Israel’s offer at Camp David did not remove many of the vestiges of the Israelioccupation in terms of land, security, settlements, and Jerusalem. Despite Is-rael’s intransigence, these negotiators continued, the Palestinian Authority(PA), the governing entity of the semiautonomous Palestinian areas in Gazaand the West Bank, preferred negotiations to violence. They argued that the PAdid not launch the intifada. Rather it was caused by factors under Israel’s con-trol, including: frustration from continued Israeli occupation of Palestinianlands despite the 1993 and 1995 Oslo peace agreements; the visit of ArielSharon, leader of Israel’s Likud opposition, to the Temple Mount/Noble Sanc-tuary on September 28, 2000; and the heavy-handed response of Israeli forcesto the resulting Palestinian protest.In this article I argue that neither the Israeli nor the Palestinian version of theevents at Camp David and subsequent talks is wholly accurate. The Pales-tinian version, however, is much closer to the evidentiary record of articles,interviews, and documents produced by participants in the negotiations, jour-nalists, and other analysts. Israel did make an unprecedented offer at CampDavid, but it neglected several elements essential to any comprehensive settle-ment, including: the contiguity of the Palestinian state in the West Bank, fullsovereignty in Arab parts of East Jerusalem, and a compromise resolution onthe right of return of Palestinian refugees. Moreover, despite Israeli conten-tions, Palestinian negotiators and much of the Palestinian nationalist move-ment favored a genuine two-state solution and did not seek to destroy Israeleither by insisting on the right of return or through the second intifada.The Palestinian version has two shortcomings. First, the PA did not givecredit to Israel for the evolution in its negotiating position from the Camp Da-vid summit to the talks in Taba, Egypt, in January 2001 on issues such as theterritorial contiguity of the West Bank and Palestinian sovereignty in East Jeru-
 International Security 28:2 6
State for Near East Affairs Martin Indyk, and major U.S. newspapers such as the
New York Times.
The Palestinian version describes events in the eyes of negotiators such as Mohammed Dahlan,Akram Haniyah, and Ahmed Qorei; it is also reºected in ofªcial statements of the Palestine Libera-tion Organization and the Palestinian Authority, the governing entity of the semiautonomous Pal-estinian areas in Gaza and the West Bank, as well as Robert Malley (a member of PresidentClinton’s National Security Council staff) and Deborah Sontag (writing for the
New York Times
).These labels are not absolute: Israelis may support the Palestinian version and vice versa. This il-lustrative list also does not capture the internal disagreements among ofªcials who worked to-gether on the same team.
 
salem. By the time of the Taba negotiations, Israel was much more cognizant ofthe compromises that it would need to make to end the occupation. Second,the Palestinian explanation for the outbreak of the second intifada was accu-rate in part. It neglected two crucial elements, however: the role of Palestinianmilitants in escalating the conºict and PA unwillingness to attempt to deci-sively rein them in.The dominance of the Israeli/U.S. version of events is not surprising giventhe power imbalance between Israel and the Palestinians. Israel and the UnitedStates alone—but especially together—have more power and leverage at the bargaining table than the Palestinians. They also have a signiªcant edge in thepublic relations battle over rhetoric, images, and symbols.
2
In addition to substantive Israeli-Palestinian disagreements, the misjudg-ments and procedural errors made by all three parties signiªcantly reduced thelikelihood of a successful deal in 2000–01. Anumber of factors combined to un-dermine the drive toward peace, including: Israeli and Palestinian mixed mes-sages; the absence of a Palestinian public relations campaign to explain thefailure of the Camp David summit; Israeli/U.S. misunderstanding of the Pales-tinian bottom line on the core issues of Jerusalem, refugees, and territory; andseveral U.S. decisions about the conduct and the timing of the summit. By being mindful of these and other mistakes in future talks, the parties will givenegotiators a better chance of success.One important caveat is that this article is an assessment of diplomatic meet-ings that did not result in a signed agreement. As is common in bargaining sit-uations, the positions shifted as both parties sought the best deal possible. AtCamp David, the parties took an all-or-nothing approach: “Nothing was con-sidered agreed and binding until everything was agreed.”
3
Most proposalswere verbal, not written.
4
Therefore, the details about positions on speciªc is-sues at the Camp David summit and subsequent negotiations are vaguer thanif the talks had resulted in a signed agreement.In the ªrst section, I describe the three proposals for resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conºict: the Israeli proposal at Camp David, the U.S. frameworkknown as the Clinton plan, and the ideas discussed at Taba. In the second sec-
Visions in Collision 7
2. This imbalance is also reºected in the structure of this article in that it devotes more space to theIsraeli/U.S. version.3. Gilead Sher, “An Israeli View: Comments on the Negotiating Strategies of Israel and the Pales-tinians,” June 17, 2002, edition 22, http://www.bitterlemons.org/previous/bl170602ed22.html.4. Hussein Agha and Robert Malley, “Camp David: The Tragedy of Errors,”
New York Review of Books,
August 9, 2001, p. 62.

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