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artificial intelligence

artificial intelligence

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Published by diwaker
this document is about the relation between bioinformatics and artificial intelligence
this document is about the relation between bioinformatics and artificial intelligence

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Published by: diwaker on Jan 25, 2011
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10/15/2012

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Bioinformatics Vs AI
Diwaker SinghReg.Id.10808015
 B.Tech-MBA (CSE), Lovely Professional University Punjab
 
 Abstract 
- This term paper aims to provide an overview of the ways inwhich techniques from artificialintelligence can be usefully employedin bioinformatics, both for modelling biological data and for making newdiscoveries. The paper covers threetechniques: symbolic machine learningapproaches (nearest-neighbour andidentification tree techniques);artificial neural networks; and geneticalgorithms. Each technique isintroduced and then supported withexamples taken from the bioinformatics literature.INTRODUCTIONThis term paper deals with the mainheading Bioinformatics Vs Artificialintelligence. In this term paper I mexplaining about the basic definition of the term Bioinformatics and ArtificialIntelligence? The second part containsthe comparison and contrast betweenBioinformatics and AI . It deals withapplicaton of AI techniques in the fieldof Bioinformatics. From the samediscussion, the difference between thetwo would be clear.
I.
WHAT AREBIOINFORMATICS AND AI?a.BIOINFORMATICSBioinformatics is the field of sciencein which biology, computer science,and information technology merge toform a single discipline. The ultimategoal of the field is to enable thediscovery of new biological insights aswell as to create a global perspectivefrom which unifying principles in biology can be discerned. At the beginning of the "genomic revolution",a bioinformatics concern was thecreation and maintenance of a databaseto store biological information, such asnucleotide and amino acid sequences.Development of this type of databaseinvolved not only design issues but thedevelopment of complex interfaceswhereby researchers could both accessexisting data as well as submit new or revised data.Ultimately, however, all of thisinformation must be combined to forma comprehensive picture of normalcellular activities so that researchersmay study how these activities arealtered in different disease states.Therefore, the field of bioinformaticshas evolved such that the most pressing task now involves theanalysis and interpretation of varioustypes of data, including nucleotide andamino acid sequences, proteindomains, and protein structures. Theactual process of analyzing andinterpreting data is referred to ascomputational biology. Important sub-
 
disciplines within bioinformatics andcomputational biology include:
the development andimplementation of tools thatenable efficient access to, anduse and management of,various types of information
the development of newalgorithms (mathematicalformulas) and statistics withwhich to assess relationshipsamong members of large datasets, such as methods tolocate a gene within asequence, predict proteinstructure and/or function, andcluster protein sequences intofamilies of related sequences
b.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCEArtificial Intelligence (AI) is the areaof computer science focusing oncreating machines that can engage on behaviours that humans consider Intelligent. The ability to createintelligent machines has intriguedhumans since ancient times and todaywith the advent of the computer and 50years of research into AI programming techniques, the dream of smart machines is becoming a reality.Researchers are creating systemswhich can mimic human thought,understand speech, beat the besthuman chess player, and countlessother feats never before possible.II.FUNCTIONS OFBIOINFORMATICSIn Bioinformatics we deal withstoring and analysing data whichcan be utilised for following aspectsof Bioinformatics:
Protein structure and function prediction
Automated genomeannotation
Biological networks inference
Comparative genomicanalyses
Scientific literature andtextual annotation mining
Integrative systems biologyapproaches
Chemoinformatics and drugdiscovery applications
Personalized medicineapplications
III.
WHY USE AI INBOINFORMATICS??The above mentioned tasks inBioinformatics require a huge amountof data to be stored and analysed bythe experts. If done manually it willconsume huge amount of time andeffort and even if we use computer for this work we will need a good teamand an efficient algorithm toaccomplish these tasks and also at thesame time we will need humans or  biologists to draw certain inferencefrom the present data. Now the word“Efficient” and “drawing inference”leads to the introduction of Artificialintelligence in this field.It means the use of artificialintelligence has risen from the needs of  biologists to utilize and help interpretthe vast amounts of data that areconstantly being gathered in genomicresearch. The underlying motivationfor many of the bioinformatics andDNA sequencing approaches is theevolution of organisms and thecomplexity of working with erroneousdata.We know that artificial intelligencecan be used to design such expertsystems which require minimumhuman resource (even a single personcan perform the task of 100 personsusing such system), can delivemaximum possible accurate result, and provide inference mechanism whichcan be used to extract new informationfrom the previously gathered data.
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There are several important problemswhere AI approaches are particularly promising
Prediction of ProteinStructure
Semiautomatic drug design
Knowledge acquisition fromgenetic data IV. FUNCTIONS OF AI INBIOINFORMATICSa. Data Mining b. Bio-Medical InformaticsAI provides several powerfulalgorithms and techniques for solvingimportant problems in bioinformaticsand chemo-informatics. Approacheslike Neural Networks, Hidden MarkovModels, Bayesian Networks andKernel Methods are ideal for areaswith lots of data but very little theory.The goal in applying AI to bioinformatics and chemo-informaticsis to extract useful information fromthe wealth of available data by building good probabilistic models.
Data Mining
is an AI powered toolthat can discover useful informationwithin a database that can then be usedto improve actions.
Bio-Medical
Informatics in the fieldof AI is a combination of the expertiseof medical informatics in developingclinical applications and the focused principles that have backgroundguided bioinformatics could create asynergy between the two areas of application.V. AN EXAMPLEFollowing example shows how the AItechniques can be used in the field of Bioinformatics
 Nearest neighbour approach
We first introduce decision trees. Adecision tree has the following properties: each node is connected to aset of possible answers; each non-leaf node is connected to a test which splitsitsset of possible answers into subsetscorresponding to different test results;and each branch carries a particulatest result’s subset to another node.Tosee how decision trees are useful for nearest neighbour calculations, let usconsider 8 blocks ofknown width,height and colour . A new block thenappears of known size but unknowncolour. On the basis of existinginformation, can we make an informedguess as to what the colour of the new block is?To answer this question, we need toassume a consistency heuristic, asfollows. Find the most similar case, asmeasured by known properties, for which the property is known; thenguess that the unknown property is thesame as the known property. This isthe basis of all nearest neighboucalculations. Although such nearestneighbour calculations can be performed by keeping all samples inmemory and calculating the nearestneighbour of a new sample only whenrequired by comparing the new samplewith previously stored samples, thereare advantages in storing theinformation about how to calculatenearest neighbours in the form of adecision tree, as will be seen later.For our example problem above, wefirst need to calculate, for the 8 blocksof known size and colour, a decisionspace using width and height only(since these are the known propertiesof the ninth block), where each of the8 blocks is located as a point within itsown unique region of space. Once the8 blocks have been assigned a uniqueregion, we then calculate, for the ninth block of known width and height, a point in the same feature space. Then,depending on what the colour of its‘nearest neighbour’ is in the region itoccupies, we allocate the colour of thenearest neighbour to the ninth block. Notice that the problem consisted of asking for an ‘informed guess’, not a
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