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Computer Networks
Chapter 05
(version June 6, 2007 
)
Maarten van Steen
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of SciencesDept. Computer ScienceRoom R4.20. Tel: (020) 598 7784E-mail: steen@cs.vu.nl, URL: www.cs.vu.nl/ 
steen/ 
01 Introduction02 Physical Layer03 Data Link Layer04 MAC Sublayer05 Network Layer06 Transport Layer07 Application Layer08 Network Security
00 1
 
Network Layer
Main service:
Provide facilities for getting data froma source to a destination
routing
.Again, distinguishbetweenconnectionlessandconnection-orientedservices. Therearetwo
implementation 
tech-niques:
Virtual circuits
are complete routes that are setup in advance.
Datagrams
comprise individual packets of whichthe route is determined on the fly: they hop fromrouter to router.
Note:
The services are independent of their imple-mentation:
Datagram Virtual circuitCL
UDP over IP UDP over IP over ATM
CO
TCP over IP ATM AAL1 over ATM
05 1 Network Layer/5.1 Design Aspect
 
Comparison
IssueDatagram Virtual circuit
Circuit setup Not needed RequiredAddressing Each packet containsthe full source anddestination addressEach packet containsa short VC numberState info Routers do not holdstate informationabout connectionsEach VC requiresrouter table spaceper connectionRouting Each packet is routedindependentlyRoute chosen whenVC is set up; allpack-ets follow itEffect of routerfailuresNone, except forpackets lost duringthe crashAll VCs that passedthrough the failedrouter are terminatedQoS Difcult Easy if enough re-sources can be allo-cated in advance foreach VCCongestioncontrolDifcult Easy if enough re-sources can be allo-cated in advance foreach VC
05 2 Network Layer/5.1 Design Aspect

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