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Input And Output devices of Computer

Input And Output devices of Computer

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Published by Full Study
information about input and output devices of computer.
information about input and output devices of computer.

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Published by: Full Study on Jan 26, 2011
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07/28/2012

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Nasir Ahmed Khan
I/O Devices and Peripherials
0529
FOUR BASIC FUNCTIONS OF COMPUTERS INCLUDE 
R
eceive input, Process information, Produce output, Store information.
INPUT AND OUTPUT HARDWARE 
 
y
 
Input Hardware
T
he devices that translate data into a form the computer can process.
y
 
Output Hardware
T
he devices that translate information processed by the computer into the form that humans can understand.
INPUT DEVICES
F
rom which computers accept information from the outside world. e.g. Key board, Mouse etc.
PROCESS INFORMATION
T
he processor, or central processing unit (CPU), processes information, and performs all the necessary arithmetic calculations.CPU is like the
brain 
of the computer.
OUTPUT DEVICES
Computers produce information and send it to the outside world. e.g. monitor, printer, etc.
 STORE INFORMATION
Memory and storage devices are used to store information. Primary storage is the computers main memory. Secondarystorage uses disks or other media.
COMPUTERS CORE:
T
he CPU and Memory
 
T
he transformations are performed by the CPU.
 
T
he microprocessor, which is a silicon chip, is located on the motherboard.
T
here are two factors that are very important to computer users are:
Compatibility:
 
Not all software is compatible with any given CPU. Each computer has a unique instruction set - a vocabularyof instructions the processor can execute.
 
S
peed
:
T
he computers speed is measured by the speed of its internal clock - a device to synchronize the electric pulses. Speedis measured in units called megahertz (MHz).
PRIMARY STORAGE:
T
he Computers Memory
RAM
(
R
andom
A
ccess
M
emory):
R
AM is the most common type of primary storage, or computer memory. Used to store program, instructions and datatemporarily. Unique addresses and can store in any location, can quickly retrieve information, will not remain if power goes off (volatile).
R
O
M
(
R
ead-Only
M
emory):
Information is stored permanently on a chip. Contains startup instructions and other permanent data.
BUSES, PORTS, AND PERIPHERALS
y
 
Information travels between components through groups of wires called Buses.
y
 
Peripherals are external devices for receiving input or producing output. e.g. (keyboard, monitor, and mouse).Communicate with other parts of the system.
y
 
Ports provide attachment and communication with external devices by means of:
S
lots
(
F
or internal attachments).
Ports
(
F
or external attachments)
 THE KEYBOARD
A standard computer keyboard has about 100 keys. Mostly have keys arranged in five groups:Alphanumeric keys, Numeric keypad,
F
unction keys, Modifier keys, Cursor-movement keys.
W
orking of Key board:
when key is pressed on the key board. Key board controller sends it to key board buffer, and buffer sendinformation to the system software, and it passes the scan code to the CPU.
POINTING DEVICES
A device with which you can control the movement of the pointer to select items on a display screen.e.g. mice, trackballs, joysticks, touchpad, Graphics
T
ablet and light pens.
 MOUSE 
T
he mouse can be used to issue commands, draw, and perform other types of input tasks.Using the mouse involves five techniques:
 
y
 
Pointing
: Move the mouse to move the on-screen pointer.
y
 
C
licking:
Press and release the left mouse button once.
y
 
R
ight-clicking:
Press and release the right mouse button.
y
 
Double-clicking:
Press and release the left mouse button twice.
y
 
Dragging:
Hold down the left mouse button as you move the pointer.
 
Nasir Ahmed Khan
I/O Devices and Peripherials
0529
OTHER POINTING DEVICES
T
rackballs
: A trackball is like a mouse turned upside-down. Use your thumb to move the exposed ball and your fingers to pressthe buttons.
T
ouch pads or
T
rack pads
: A touchpad is a touch-sensitive pad that provides the same functionality as a mouse.
T
o use atouchpad, you glide your finger across its surface.
Joystick
: A lever that moves in all directions and controls the movement of a pointer or some other display symbol.
T
hey areprimarily used for playing games, like driving.
ALTERNATIVE INPUT DEVICES
Pen-based
S
ystem
: With a pen-based system, you use an electronic pen to write on the screen and choose commands. Pens arecommon input devices for handheld computers, like personal digital assistants (PDAs).
 
T
he user can point, tap, draw andwrite on the computers screen with a pen.
T
ouch
S
creens
:
 
T
ouch-screen systems accept input directly through the monitor by using sensors.
T
hey are useful whereenvironmental conditions prohibit the use of a keyboard or mouse.
Digitizing
T
ablets
: An input device that enables you to enter drawings and sketches into a computer.A digitizing tablet consists of an electronic tablet and a cursor or pen.A cursor (also called a puck) is similar to a mouse, except that it has a window with cross hairs for pinpoint placement, and itcan have as many as 16 buttons.A pen (also called a stylus) looks like a simple ballpoint pen but uses an electronic head instead of ink.
 MODEM
T
he word modem comes from the terms modulation and demodulation. A device that encodes digital computer signals intoanalog/analogue telephone signals and vice versa and allows computers to communicate over a phone line.
  SCREEN OUTPUT 
Video Monitor or Video Display
T
erminal (VD
T
)Image exists in video memory (V
R
AM), Monitor size is measured diagonally across the screen
Pixels
: Images are made up of dots called
Pixels
for picture elements
.
 
T
he pixels affect the resolution of the monitor.
T
he higher the resolution, the better the image quality.
CLASSES OF MONITORS
C
R
T
(
C
athode
R
ay
T
ube):
A C
RT
is a television-style monitorIts features include: Clear image, Quick response time, Low cost, Very popular.In C
RT
monitors, electrons are fired at phosphor dots on the screen, Magnetic yoke guides the electrons across and down thescreen, philosopher dots on the screen glow when the electron beam hit them.
L
C
D (Liquid
C
rystal Display)
: LCDs comprise flat-panel monitorsIts features include: Lighter weight, more compact, expensive, Dominate the portable computer market.Passive matrix LCD uses a transistor for each row and column of pixels.Active matrix LCD uses a transistor for each pixel on the screen.
T
hin-film transistor displays use multiple transistors for each pixel.
FACTORS AFFECTING SCREEN CLARITY 
R
esolution
:
R
esolution is the number of pixels on the screen, expressed as a matrix. Example such as 600x800.A 17" monitor offers resolutions from 640x480 up to 1280x1024.
T
he Video Graphics Array (VGA) standard is 640x480. Super VGA (SVGA) monitors provide resolutions of 800x600, 1024x768 orhigher.
R
esolution (image sharpness) is important.
R
efresh
R
ate
:
R
efresh rate is the number of times each second that the electron guns scan the screen's pixels.
R
efresh rate is measured in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second. Look for a refresh rate of 72 Hz or higher. A slower rate may causeeyestrain.Electron gun from left to right and from top to bottom, refreshing every phosphorus dot in an zigzag pattern.
DOT PITCH
 Dot pitch is the distance between the phosphor dots that make up a single pixel. In color monitors, three dots (red, green, andblue) comprise each pixel. Look for a dot pitch no greater than .31 millimeter (mm).

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