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Vedic Maths

# Vedic Maths

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08/06/2013

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The Vedic Mathematics Sutras
This list of sutras is taken from the book Vedic Mathematics, which includes a full listof the sixteen Sutras in Sanskrit, but in some cases a translation of the Sanskrit is notgiven in the text and comes from elsewhere. This formula 'On the Flag' is not in the list given in Vedic Mathematics, but is referredto in the text.
The Main Sutras

By one more than the one before.All from 9 and the last from 10.Vertically and Cross-wiseTranspose and ApplyIf the Samuccaya is the Same it is ZeroIf One is in Ratio the Other is ZeroBy Addition and by SubtractionBy the Completion or Non-CompletionDifferential CalculusBy the DeficiencySpecific and GeneralThe Remainders by the Last DigitThe Ultimate and Twice the PenultimateBy One Less than the One BeforeThe Product of the SumAll the Multipliers

The Sub Sutras

ProportionatelyThe Remainder Remains ConstantThe First by the First and the Last by the LastFor 7 the Multiplicand is 143By OsculationLessen by the DeficiencyWhatever the Deficiency lessen by that amount andset up the Square of the Deficiency

Last Totalling 10Only the Last TermsThe Sum of the ProductsBy Alternative Elimination and RetentionBy Mere ObservationThe Product of the Sum is the Sum of the ProductsOn the Flag
Try a Sutra
Mark Gaskell introduces an alternativesystem of calculation based on Vedic philosophyAt the Maharishi School in Lancashire we have developed a course on Vedicmathematics for key stage 3 that covers the national curriculum. The results havebeen impressive: maths lessons are much livelier and more fun, the children enjoytheir work more and expectations of what is possible are very much higher. Academicperformance has also greatly improved: the first class to complete the coursemanaged to pass their GCSE a year early and all obtained an A grade.Vedic maths comes from the Vedic tradition of India. The Vedas are the most ancientrecord of human experience and knowledge, passed down orally for generations andwritten down about 5,000 years ago. Medicine, architecture, astronomy and manyother branches of knowledge, including maths, are dealt with in the texts. Perhaps itis not surprising that the country credited with introducing our current numbersystem and the invention of perhaps the most important mathematical symbol, 0,may have more to offer in the field of maths. The remarkable system of Vedic maths was rediscovered from ancient Sanskrit textsearly last century. The system is based on 16 sutras or aphorisms, such as: "by onemore than the one before" and "all from nine and the last from 10". These describenatural processes in the mind and ways of solving a whole range of mathematicalproblems. For example, if we wished to subtract 564 from 1,000 we simply apply thesutra "all from nine and the last from 10". Each figure in 564 is subtracted from nineand the last figure is subtracted from 10, yielding 436. This can easily be extended to solve problems such as 3,000 minus 467. We simplyreduce the first figure in 3,000 by one and then apply the sutra, to get the answer2,533. We have had a lot of fun with this type of sum, particularly when dealing with

money examples, such as 10 take away 2. 36. Many of the children have describedhow they have challenged their parents to races at home using many of the Vedictechniques - and won. This particular method can also be expanded into a generalmethod, dealing with any subtraction sum. The sutra "vertically and crosswise" has many uses. One very useful application ishelping children who are having trouble with their tables above 5x5. For example7x8. 7 is 3 below the base of 10, and 8 is 2 below the base of 10. The whole approach of Vedic maths is suitable for slow learners, as it is so simple andeasy to use. The sutra "vertically and crosswise" is often used in long multiplication. Suppose wewish to multiply32 by 44. We multiply vertically 2x4=8. Then we multiply crosswise and add the two results: 3x4+4x2=20, so put down 0and carry 2.Finally we multiply vertically 3x4=12 and add the carried 2 =14. Result: 1,408.We can extend this method to deal with long multiplication of numbers of any size. The great advantage of this system is that the answer can be obtained in one lineand mentally. By the end of Year 8, I would expect all students to be able to do a "3by 2" long multiplication in their heads. This gives enormous confidence to the pupilswho lose their fear of numbers and go on to tackle harder maths in a more openmanner.All the techniques produce one-line answers and most can be dealt with mentally, socalculators are not used until Year 10. The methods are either "special", in that theyonly apply under certain conditions, or general. This encourages flexibility andinnovation on the part of the students.