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Geography Elective notes-Chapter 1: Natural Vegetation

Geography Elective notes-Chapter 1: Natural Vegetation

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Published by Fung Wan Pei
these are my own notes
these are my own notes

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Fung Wan Pei on Jan 26, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/07/2013

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TropicalRainforestsTropicalMonsoonForestsMangroveForestsConiferousForests
DistributionandCharacteristics-experience a tropicalequatorial climate(a sub-type of thetropical climate+Experienced in placesnear the Equator
Examples: 
Amazon Basin inSouth America
-
experiencetropical monsoonclimate+TMF found in theTropics
Examples: 
TMF are locatedat-South Asia-(found inplaces)experiencingthe tropicalclimate+Especiallyalong
sheltered coastal regions
 and placeswhere
riversconstantly deposit clay and silt. Aka
Found in areas
 flooded by coastal tidesalong rivers
Examples: 
-Kuantan inPeninsularMalaysia
-
experience a coolcontinentalclimate( a sub-type of thetemperate climate+Experienced inplaces near theNorthernHemisphere+Areas of highaltitudes (coldclimate)
Four seasons:SpringSummer
y
 
w
armestseason(averaging21 )AutumnWinter
y
 
c
oldestseason (
c
anfall as lo
w
 as -40 )
Examples: 
Alaska-northern Canada-northern United
 
Congo Basin inAfricaParts of theSoutheast Asia(Malaysia,Indonesia)
-Southeast Asia-southern China-northernAustralia
 
(mangroveforests foundgrowing alongits coasts)
 
States of American-northernScandinava(Finland, Norway,Sweden)
R
ussia
 
Distribution inthe worldBetweenOf the EquatorNorthernHemisphereClimate(temperatureand rainfall)High temperature(about 27 )High annual rainfall(above 1500millimetres)
Distinct wet anddry seasonsNote: southwestmonsoon,northeastmonsoon
High temperature(about 26 )High annual rainfall( over 1500millimetres)20 to 30
As low as -40 inwinter about 21in the summer
-Precipitation in theform of snow-Low precipitation(about
300
 millimetres to 6
35
 millilmetres
Structure
5
vertical layers 3 vertical layers
o
 
trees are
shorter averageheight:1
5
m
 (due to
seasonal rainfall 
.
3 distincthorizontallayers
-Mangrove treesmay vary inheight from 2metres to 40
Uniform in height-
trees are tall-generally uniformin height-little undergrowth
 
W
hy?-Low amount of 
 
 Emergent layer
-tall trees calledemergent- (30m to 50m)-their crowns appearabove the canopylayer.-tall, thick, straighttrunks
Canopy layer
-(15m to 30m)-their wide, shallowand umbrella-shapedcrowns form acontinuous leaf cover,called a canopy.As they preventsunlight formpenetrating into thelower layers of theforest.-contain parasiticplants
Understorey layer
-(6m to 15m)-they have narrower,oval-shaped crownsthe lack of waterduring thedry seasondoes notallow treesto grow togreatheights
Canopy layer
-(0 to 6m)-more spread out
 than those on TRF.
 -(like TRF) plantssuch as creepers,vines, epiphytesand parasiticplants
found withinthis layer.
Understoreylayer
-(6m to 15m)metresas the
muddy soil 
inthe coastalenvironment
cannot provide firm support 
forvery tall trees togrow.-Average heightof 15 metres-Generallyshorter thantrees in TRF
Coastal zone
-nearest to thecoast-plants growinghere haveadapted togrowing in saltwater
as the coastal zone is flooded with seawwter during high tide.
 
-the trees havebreathing rootse.g.
 Avicennia
and
Sonneratia
trees
Middle zone
e.g.
Rhizophora
treessunlight received inthe temperateregion-Low soil nutrientlevel caused by thenature of the leaf Litter
Nature of leaf litter:-Leaf litter is madeup of 
tough needles
 which
do not break down easily 
tosupply nutrients tothe soil

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