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Organizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior

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Published by Zaki Sarfraz

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Published by: Zaki Sarfraz on Jan 26, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Some decades back organizations were very simple, and the business were only local and were not doneon international level. So, therefore, managing the organizations was quite easy and much much simpler than now. The people in the organizations used to be mostly males and of the same origin and backgroundwhich means that the personnel or the workforce then was not as diverse as now. The new millennium hasstarted and the competition these days has increased tremendously. Every firm and organization tries tocompete with others. But firms can have an advantage over its competitors by having better people andpersonnel. So, as the competition increases emphasis on better and better personnel in an organizationincreases. Therefore, training better people and workers has become the main concern and issue for themanagers. Managers and directors adopt established and new innovative techniques to lift the performanceof their workers. So, there is when the importance of organizational Behavior comes into play.Organizational Behavior is simply “a way of managing the people and workers” CHALLENGES FACED BY THE MANAGEMENT:Today’s management faces many challenges and difficulties. Some of the challenges facing managementare downsizing, reengineering, knowledge and information explosion, global competition and total qualitymanagement. All these factors that are creating difficulties for the management and administrations of thecompanies can be called the new environment. So, every management has to cope with these difficulties. THE NEW ENVIRONMENT:The new environment; Globalization, Information technology, total quality and diversity and ethics: 1. 1. GLOBALIZATION:Due to the advancements in transportation and development in the field of science the world has become asmaller place and this is called globalization or global village where transporting goods and transmittinginformation is done in a very shorter period of time than a century ago. So, these advancements have madethe world a smaller place and now companies can send and sell their services and products even to far away lands and areas. 2. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY:The other major environmental development is that of the computers which poses a challenge to themanagement of organizations today. In other words, to perform better organizations must employ newtechnologies and inventions to remain competitive. As the advancements are so much in this field,organizations have to update their knowledge every few months later to a have knowledge of new softwareand equipments which is a problem and more importantly the organizations have to employee people thatcan use these new techniques and machines and training and employing these people is a very difficultthing to do. 3.TOTAL QUALITY:Besides other factors the quality of products is given a great deal of importance, due to many choices thecustomers have, which means that the products and services of the organization has to be of good quality tocompete. And this is another headache for the managers. Recently, beside other marketing activitiescompanies should make their products and services so that it must have a better quality to be a success inthe market, which increases the responsibilities of any management and people involved in it. 4. DIVERSITY AND ETHICS:Diversity means, that nowadays in an organization, people come from different parts of the world withdifferent places and cultures with different ages, backgrounds, religions, ethnicities and values and norms.And managers should keep this in mind that the organization should be designed so that there should be nodiscrimination on the basis of gender, ethnicity or religion. So, formulating and maintaining such rules,policies and environment in an organization is difficult for its management. WHAT CAN BE DONE?The answer to all the challenges faced by organizations is simple! 
“People can be used as a competitive advantage over the others.”
 As nowadays all the organizations have the techniques and technologies exposed and available to them andmost the organizations have the same factors to face with the same financial resources and same
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technologies. So, the only way these organizations can perform better than others (their competitors) is byhaving better personnel and expert workers. Efficient personnel can be strength of any organization in anenvironment where competition is cut throat and very tough. Organizations can have better workers to givethem an advantage or edge over their competitors. How to train develop and maintain good personnel isvery basic question for managements all over the world. And studies to understand and take the best out of the workers, is provided by a very new field of science the study of Organizational behavior (OB).UNDERGOING A PARADIGM SHIFT:Paradigm means a broad model, a framework, a way of thinking, or a scheme of understanding reality. Theimpact of internationalization, information technology, total quality and diversity has lead to a “Paradigmshift” in organizations. In other words, as the environment has changed tremendously and these factorshave also affected the type and style of management in organizations, so, for todays and tomorrow’sorganizations and management, there are new rules with different boundaries requiring new and differentbehavior inside the boundaries for organizations and management to be successful. And these changes andtransformations in the management and structures of the organizations are called the “Paradigm Shift”So, the factors like diversity, total quality, information technology, downsizing, internationalization andglobalization have brought a paradigm shift in the organizations all over the globe.EXAMPLES: 1. At first most organizations used type writers and conventional approaches but due to the advancementsin the field of computers, the organizations and firms felt a need to change their approach and replace typewriters with computers for word processing due to their many benefits and advantages. 2. Similarly, management systems had to be changed and a need was felt to leave the useless old systemsaside and move to new approach to management systems. These new management techniques makes useof the technologies like computers an many other new equipments. So, this shift or transfer from one set toanother is called a “Paradigm shift”. PARADIGM EFFECT:When a “Paradigm shift” takes place there is real controversy and disagreement in the organization, ofteninvolving large restructuring and extensive redesigning of the whole organization or of the entire communityor under conditions of great uncertainty and doubt which is called the “Paradigm Effect”.In the time of a paradigm shirt there is always a resistance to the changes by many people and they don’twant to change the old rules and models with new ones and want to follow the old set of rules andregulations. But other want the change to take place and this condition of disagreement and conflict is calledparadigm effect. DEFINING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR (OB)Organizational behavior has emerged about a couple of decades ago. OB is a theoretical subject and field of science. Or in other words OB tends to be more theoretically oriented and at the micro level of analysis.Specifically, OB draws from many theoretical frameworks of the behavioral sciences that are focused atunderstanding and explaining individual and group behavior in organizations. So OB can be defined as; “It isan attempt to replace all the management with behavioral science concepts and techniques”.Or much more comprehensive definition can be;“Organizational Behavior is the science which tries to understand, predict and manage the human behavior in an organization” EXPANATION:Organizational Behavior represents the behavioral approach to management, not the whole management. Itworks on the principles and knowledge of Psychology. OB has its basis from the Industrial psychology. But itis not the new version of translation of industrial Psychology. It has its own grounds of study. Simply, to put itin a few words Organizational behavior is the science which makes an easy and better management of thehuman resources to perform better. 
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DIVERSITY:Diversity means variation and a clear difference. And in the study of organizational behavior it meansdifferent people working in a group and organization. As in today’s environment people come from differentcountries and regions with different cultures, races, languages, values and norms so we say that today’sfirms and organizations have become diverse. Another face of diversity means that people of different agegroups (young and old) and both genders (male and female) work in the same organization. This “Diversity”makes the organizations a mixture of different people. So this has become a challenge and test for themanagement to manage this diversity to make the organization an efficient one.EXAMPLE:-The UN or United Nations Organization and many international organizations and NGOs have a diversemanagement as there are people with different cultures and nationalities working in the same organizationside by side.REASONS FOR DIVERSITYSome of the reasons for diversity in organizations all over the world and particularly in America areLegislations and laws, competitive pressures, desire and need for more diverse viewpoints, rapidly growinginternational business, and changing work force demographics. 1. laws and legislations;The most important reason for the diversity in organizations is laws and legislations. The political andlegal systems have compelled organizations the organizations to hire more broadly and provide equalopportunity to all the employees regardless of their gender, race or color.EXAMPLE;Age Discrimination Act 1978: In USA this law first increased the age for retirement from 65 to 70 yearsand then eliminated this upper age limit. 2. competitive pressures;Today all the organizations compete with each other and to cope with this pressure organizations hiremore diverse work force to have an edge over their competitors and to make use of the talents andcapabilities of their diverse work force.EXAMPLE: - Many companies these days hire more women and minorities to take advantage of their talentsand capabilities to perform their works and tasks in a better way. 3. desire for diverse viewpoints;In the process of management, one point of view can not be effective and as useful as many thoughtsand viewpoints. So if organizations have people with different cultures and backgrounds so they will havedifference in behavior and thinking and their ideas will differ from one another. And this is one strong reasonfor the diversity of organizations.EXAMPLE: In management we need solution to a problem. If we have different ideas and thoughts then it ismuch easier for the manager to choose the best solution. 4. rapidly growing international business;International companies have their operations in many countries and the number of international companies’increases day by day. So the diversity in these companies and firms also increases as people form differentparts of the world come together to work in one group and organization. Therefore, rapid and fast growinginternational business is another factor for the increase in diversity. 5. WORK FORCE DEMOGRAPHICS;Demographics means the knowledge and information about the characteristics like age, gender, income,race, religion, education, lifestyle, language and ethnicity any population in an area. Work forcedemographics means the characteristics (mentioned above) of the workers or employees. The followingcharacteristics of work force demographics will give us an idea about the diversity in organizations. 5.1 AGE:The number of workers under the age of twenty five is decreasing. While the number of workers in the groupthirty five to fifty four groups is increasing. The reason for this is the decrease in number of children in USfamilies. Another reason is the Age Discrimination Act 1978 due to which the number of the older workers isincreasing. (The graying America)
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