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1.1 A Unifying Framework
1.2 Modeling to Reveal Problem Structure
1.3 The Role of Duality
1.5 Some Applications
1.6 Plan of the Book
1.7 Bibliographic Notes
2.1 The Solution Process
2.1.1 Search
2.1.2 Inference
2.1.3 Relaxation
2.1.4 Exercises
2.2 Branching Search
2.2.1 Branch and Infer
2.2.2 Branch and Relax
2.2.3 Example: Freight Transfer
2.2.4 Example: Production Planning
2.2.5 Example: Employee Scheduling
2.2.6 Example: Continuous Global Optimization
2.2.7 Example: Product Conﬁguration
2.2.8 Branch and Price
2.2.9 Example: Airline Crew Scheduling
2.2.10 Exercises
2.3 Constraint-Directed Search
2.3.1 Constraint-Directed Branching
2.3.2 Example: Propositional Satisﬁability
2.3.3 Partial-Order Dynamic Backtracking
2.3.4 Example: Propositional Satisﬁability
2.3.5 Relaxation in Constraint-Directed Search
2.3.6 Logic-Based Benders Decomposition
2.3.7 Example: Machine Scheduling
2.3.8 Exercises
2.4 Local Search
2.4.1 Some Popular Metaheuristics
2.4.2 Local Search Conceived as Branching
2.4.3 Relaxation
2.4.4 Constraint-Directed Local Search
2.4.5 Example: Single-Vehicle Routing
2.4.6 Exercises
2.5 Bibliographic Notes
3.1 Completeness
3.1.1 Basic Deﬁnitions
3.1.2 Domain Completeness
3.1.3 Bounds Completeness
3.1.4 k-Completeness
3.1.5 k-Consistency
3.1.6 Backtracking and Width
3.1.7 Exercises
3.2 Inference Duality
3.2.1 Strong Duality and Completeness
3.2.2 Certiﬁcates and Problem Complexity
3.2.3 Sensitivity Analysis
3.2.4 Duality and Constraint-Directed Search
3.2.5 Exercises
3.3 Linear Inequalities
3.3.1 A Complete Inference Method
3.3.2 Domain and Bounds Completeness
3.3.3 k-Completeness
3.3.4 Linear Programming Duality
3.3.5 Sensitivity Analysis
3.3.6 Basic Solutions
3.3.7 More Sensitivity Analysis
3.3.8 Domain Reduction with Dual Multipliers
3.3.9 Classical Benders Cuts
3.3.10 Exercises
3.4 General Inequality Constraints
3.4.1 The Surrogate Dual
3.4.2 The Lagrangean Dual
3.4.3 Properties of the Lagrangean Dual
3.4.4 Domain Reduction with Lagrange Multipliers
3.5.6 Completeness of Parallel Resolution
3.5.7 Exercises
3.6 0-1 Linear Inequalities
3.6.1 Implication between Inequalities
3.6.2 Implication of Logical Clauses
3.6.3 Implication of Cardinality Clauses
3.6.4 0-1 Resolution
3.6.5 k-Completeness
3.6.6 Strong k-Consistency
3.6.7 Exercises
3.7 Integer Linear Inequalities
3.7.2 The Branching Dual
3.7.3 Benders Cuts
3.9 The All-Diﬀerent Constraint
3.9.1 Bipartite Matching
3.9.2 Domain Completeness
3.9.3 Bounds Completeness
3.9.4 Exercises
3.10 The Cardinality and Nvalues Constraints
3.10.1 The Cardinality Constraint
3.10.2 Network Flow Model
3.10.3 Domain Completeness for Cardinality
3.10.4 The Nvalues Constraint
3.10.5 Exercises
3.11 The Circuit Constraint
3.11.1 Modeling with Circuit
3.11.2 Elementary Filtering Methods
3.11.3 Filtering Based on Separators
3.11.4 Network Flow Model
3.11.5 Exercises
3.12 The Stretch Constraint
3.12.1 Dynamic Programming Model
3.12.2 Domain Completeness
3.12.3 Exercises
3.13 Disjunctive Scheduling
3.13.1 Edge Finding
3.13.2 Not-First, Not-Last Rules
3.13.3 Benders Cuts
3.13.4 Exercises
3.14 Cumulative Scheduling
3.14.1 Edge Finding
3.14.2 Extended Edge Finding
3.14.3 Not-First, Not-Last Rules
3.14.4 Energetic Reasoning
3.14.5 Benders Cuts
3.14.6 Exercises
3.15 Bibliographic Notes
RELAXATION
4.1 Relaxation Duality
4.2 Linear Inequalities
4.2.1 Linear Optimization
4.2.2 Relaxation Dual
4.2.3 Exercises
4.3 Semicontinuous Piecewise Linear Functions
4.3.1 Convex Hull Relaxation
4.3.2 Exercises
4.4 0-1 Linear Inequalities
4.4.1 Chv´atal-Gomory Cuts
4.4.2 0-1 Knapsack Cuts
4.4.3 Sequential Lifting
4.4.4 Sequence-Independent Lifting
4.4.5 Set Packing Inequalities
4.4.6 Exercises
4.5 Integer Linear Inequalities
4.5.1 Chv´atal-Gomory Cuts
4.5.2 Gomory Cuts
4.5.3 Mixed Integer Rounding Cuts
4.5.4 Separating Mixed Integer Rounding Cuts
4.5.5 Integral Polyhedra
4.5.6 Exercises
4.6 Lagrangean and Surrogate Relaxations
4.6.1 Surrogate Relaxation and Duality
4.6.2 Lagrangean Relaxation and Duality
4.6.3 Lagrangean Relaxation for Linear Programming
4.6.4 Example: Generalized Assignment Problem
4.6.5 Solving the Lagrangean Dual
4.6.6 Exercises
4.7 Disjunctions of Linear Systems
4.7.1 Convex Hull Relaxation
4.7.2 Big-M Relaxation
4.7.3 Disjunctions of Linear Inequalities
4.7.4 Disjunctions of Linear Equations
4.7.5 Separating Disjunctive Cuts
4.7.6 Exercises
4.8 Disjunctions of Nonlinear Systems
4.8.1 Convex Hull Relaxation
4.8.2 Big-M Relaxation
4.8.3 Exercises
4.9 MILP Modeling
4.9.1 MILP Representability
4.9.2 Example: Fixed-Charge Function
4.9.3 Disjunctive Models
4.9.4 Knapsack Models
4.9.5 Exercises
4.10 Propositional Logic
4.10.1 Common Logical Formulas
4.10.2 Resolution as a Tightening Technique
4.10.3 Refutation by Linear Relaxation
4.10.4 Input Resolution and Rank 1 Cuts
4.10.5 Separating Resolvents
4.11.2 Big-M Relaxations
4.11.3 Vector-Valued Element
4.11.4 Exercises
4.12 The All-Diﬀerent Constraint
4.12.1 Convex Hull Relaxation
4.12.2 Convex Hull MILP Formulation
4.12.3 Modeling Costs with Alldiﬀ
4.12.5 Exercises
4.13 The Cardinality Constraint
4.13.1 Convex Hull Relaxation
4.13.2 Convex Hull MILP Formulation
4.13.3 Exercises
4.14 The Circuit Constraint
4.14.1 0-1 Programming Model
4.14.2 Continuous Relaxations
4.14.3 Comb Inequalities
4.14.4 Exercises
4.15 Disjunctive Scheduling
4.15.1 Disjunctive Relaxations
4.15.2 MILP Relaxations
4.15.3 A Class of Valid Inequalities
4.15.4 Exercises
4.16 Cumulative Scheduling
4.16.1 MILP Models
4.16.2 A Class of Valid Inequalities
4.16.3 Relaxation of Benders Subproblems
4.16.4 Exercises
4.17 Bibliographic Notes
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