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Module+2.+Competition+and+Price+Regulation-ICT Regulation Toolkit

Module+2.+Competition+and+Price+Regulation-ICT Regulation Toolkit

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Module 2. Competition and Price Regulation
Downloaded Tuesday, April 06, 2010
This document is a downloadable report from the infoDev/ITU ICT Regulatory Toolkit. Please note that the version that appears on the
website atwww.ictregulationtoolkit.orgis the most updated version and has extra functionality (e.g., links, practice notes, referencedocuments etc). If you find any problems, please contact
Module 2. Competition and Price Regulation
Executive Summaries1 Overview: Putting ICT Regulation in Context1.1 Key Developments in the ICT Sector1.2 Trends in ICT Regulation2 Competition Policy and the ICT Sector2.1 Forms of Competition2.1.1 Perfect Competition2.1.2 Effective Competition2.1.3 Market Contestability2.1.4 Sustainable Competition2.2 Why Focus on Competition?2.2.1 Benchmarking Competition by Sector2.2.2 Comparison Table: Competition by Sector and Region2.3 Competition Policy and Regulation2.3.1 Competition Policy2.3.2 Regulation2.3.3 Ex Ante and Ex Post Regulation2.3.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Ex Ante versus Ex Post Regulation2.3.5 Regulatory Forbearance2.4 Key Concepts in Competition Policy2.4.1 Markets and Market Definition2.4.2 Market Power2.4.3 Barriers to Entry2.4.4 Essential Facilities2.5 Common Forms of Anti-Competitive Conduct2.5.1 Abuse of Dominance2.5.2 Refusal to Supply2.5.3 Vertical Price Squeeze2.5.4 Cross-Subsidization2.5.5 Misuse of Information2.5.6 Customer Lock-In2.5.7 Exclusionary or Predatory Pricing2.5.8 Tying and Bundling
2.6 Remedies for Anti-Competitive Conduct2.6.1 Remedies for Abuse of Dominance2.6.2 Remedies for Refusal to Supply and Price Squeezes2.6.3 Remedies for Cross-Subsidization2.6.4 Remedies for Misuse of Information2.6.5 Remedies for Customer Lock-In2.6.6 Remedies for Predatory Pricing2.6.7 Remedies for Tying and Bundling2.7 Mergers, Acquisitions, and Joint Ventures2.7.1 Horizontal Mergers2.7.2 Vertical Mergers2.7.3 Joint Ventures3 Regulating For Interconnection3.1 Overview of Interconnection3.1.1 What is Interconnection?3.1.2 Why is Interconnection Important?3.1.3 Why Regulate Interconnection?3.2 Key Concepts3.2.1 Forms of Interconnection3.2.2 Unbundling3.2.3 Asymmetric Interconnection Regulation3.2.4 Issues Dealt with in Interconnection Agreements3.3 Setting Interconnection Prices3.3.1 Pricing Principles3.3.2 Long-Run Incremental Cost Modelling3.3.3 Commonly Used Cost Models3.3.4 Benchmarking Interconnection Rates3.4 Mobile Interconnection3.4.1 Forms of Mobile Interconnection3.4.2 Mobile Termination Rates3.4.3 Retentions for Fixed-to-Mobile Calls3.4.4 Modelling Mobile Network Costs3.4.5 Mobile Roaming3.4.6 Social Issues and Universal Service3.5 Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Countries3.5.1 Infrastructure Challenges3.5.2 Transparency and Access to Information3.5.3 Regulating State-Owned Operators3.5.4 Free Trade Negotiations3.5.5 Dispute Resolution3.6 Cross-Border Interconnection3.6.1 The Accounting Rate System3.6.2 Regional Interconnection Clearing Houses4 New Paradigms: Voice Over IP and IXPS4.1 About the Internet4.1.1 Overview of the Internet4.1.2 The Seven Layers of Internet Interconnection4.1.3 Evolution of the Internet4.1.4 Current Internet Market Developments4.2 About VoIP4.2.1 Types of VoIP4.2.2 Comparison of VoIP and Conventional Telephony4.2.3 Protocols that Support VoIP4.3 Arbitrage Opportunities in the ICT Sector4.3.1 Common Arbitrage Strategies4.4 VoIP and Regulation4.4.1 Implications of VoIP for Regulators4.4.2 Trends in VoIP Regulation4.4.3 Differential Regulation of VoIP and Conventional Telephony
4.5 Interconnection Pricing for VoIP4.5.1 A Comparison of Telecommunications and Internet Cost Recovery4.5.2 Models for Internet Interconnection4.5.3 Implications of VoIP for Interconnection Pricing4.5.4 Pricing Mechanisms for VoIP Interconnection4.5.5 Criteria for a New Interconnection Regime4.6 VoIP Over Wireless Networks4.7 Benchmarking Rates for Network Access4.8 Internet Exchange Points4.8.1 The Role of Internet Exchange Points4.8.2 Supporting IXPs in Developing Countries4.8.3 Internet Exchange Points in Africa5 Regulating Prices5.1 Why Regulate Prices?5.2 Economic and Accounting Measures of Cost5.3 Useful Economic Concepts5.3.1 Economic Efficiency and Pricing5.3.2 Economies of Scale and Scope5.3.3 Single- and Multiple-Service Firms5.4 Pricing Principles for the ICT Sector5.5 Setting the Level and Structure of Prices5.5.1 Fixed and Variable Costs and Price Setting5.5.2 Determining Mark-Ups over TSLRIC5.6 Tariff Rebalancing5.7 International Benchmarking of Prices5.8 Rate of Return Regulation5.9 Incentive Regulation5.10 Rate of Return Regulation versus Price Caps5.11 Implementing Price Caps5.11.1 Price Cap Baskets5.11.2 Assessing Price Variations5.11.3 Calculating the Productivity Factor5.11.4 Service Quality Factors5.11.5 Exogenous Cost Factors5.12 Towards a Double Price Cap5.13 Price Regulation and Multiple Play Offerings6. Infrastructure Sharing6.1 Key Concepts6.1.1 Passive and Active Infrastructure6.1.2 Essential or Bottleneck Facilities6.1.3 Open Access6.2 Policy Issues6.2.1 Promoting rapid and efficient network deployment6.2.2. The efficient deployment of Next-Generation Networks6.2.3. Environmental Considerations and Local Land Use Planning6.2.4. Competition6.2.5. Innovation6.3 Forms of sharing6.3.1. Infrastructure sharing and collocation6.3.3 Interconnection6.3.4 Unbundling6.4 National Fibre Core Networks6.4.1 The importance of national fibre backbones and access to broadband6.4.2 Obstacles to the deployment of broadband networks6.4.3 Key players6.4.4 Passive Infrastructure Sharing6.4.5 Active Infrastructure Sharing6.4.6. Public-Private Partnerships and Open Access Networks6.4.7. National broadband policies

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