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Radio Frequency Identification Report

Radio Frequency Identification Report

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Published by khuzainey ismail

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Published by: khuzainey ismail on Aug 14, 2008
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02/05/2011

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1.0INTRODUCTION
Scanning is considered as electronics imaging. An electronic imaging system usually consists of an input scanner which converts an optical image into electrical signal. This is followed byelectronic hardware and software for processing or manipulation of the signal and for storageand/or transmission to an output scanner. The latter converts the final version of the signal back into optical (visible) image, typically for transient (softcopy) or permanent (hardcopy) display toa human observer. The scanning system can be divided by using infrared technology and radiofrequency technology.
1.1Wireless Communication / RF Technology
Wireless communication systems require frequency signals for the efficient transmission of information. Since the signal frequency is inversely related to its wavelength, antennas operatingat RFs and microwaves have higher radiation efficiencies. Radio Frequency (RF) refersspecifically to the electromagnetic field, or radio wave, that is generated when an alternatingcurrent is input to an antenna. This field can be used for wireless broadcasting andcommunications over a significant portion of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum from about9 kilohertz (kHz) to thousands of gigahertz (GHz). As the frequency is increased beyond the RFspectrum, electromagnetic energy takes the form of infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays andgamma rays.Further, their size is relatively small and hence convenient for mobile communication. Another factor that favors RFs and microwaves is that the transmission of broadband information signalsrequires a high-frequency carrier signal. Wireless technology has been expending very fast. Inaddition to the traditional applications in communication, such as radio and television. RF andmicrowaves signal are being used in works and personal communication service. Keyless door entry, radio frequency identification (RFID), monitoring of patients in hospital or a nursinghome, cordless keyboards for computers are and many measuring and instrumentation systems1
 
used in manufacturing some of the other areas where RF technology is being used and operate atinfrared or visible light frequencies.The RF spectrum is divided into several ranges, or bands. Each of these bands, other than thelowest frequency segment, represents an increase of frequency corresponding to an order of magnitude (power of ten). The electromagnetic spectrum is a continuum of all electromagneticwaves arranged according to frequency and wavelength. Electromagnetic radiation is classifiedinto types according to the frequency and length of the wave. Visible light that comes from alamp in your house or radio waves transmitted by a radio station are just two of the many typesof electromagnetic radiation. An electromagnetic wave consists of the electric and magneticcomponents. These components repeat or oscillate at right angles to each other and to thedirection of propagation, and are in phase with each other.Figure 1 : An electromagnetic wavesThese frequencies make up part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum such as below:
Ultra-low frequency (ULF) -- 0-3 Hz
Extremely low frequency (ELF) -- 3 Hz - 3 kHz
Very low frequency (VLF) -- 3kHz - 30 kHz
Low frequency (LF) -- 30 kHz - 300 kHz2
 
Medium frequency (MF) -- 300 kHz - 3 MHz
High frequency (HF) -- 3MHz - 30 MHz
Very high frequency (VHF) -- 30 MHz - 300 MHz
Ultra-high frequency (UHF)-- 300MHz - 3 GHz
Super high frequency (SHF) -- 3GHz - 30 GHz
Extremely high frequency (EHF) -- 30GHz - 300 GHz
1.2Radio waves
Radio waves can propagate from transmitter to receiver in four ways: through ground waves, skywaves, free space waves, and open field waves. Ground waves exist only for vertical polarization, produced by vertical antennas, when the transmitting and receiving antennas areclose to the surface of the earth. The transmitted radiation induces currents in the earth, and thewaves travel over the earth's surface, being attenuated according to the energy absorbed by theconducting earth. The reason that horizontal antennas are not effective for ground wave propagation is that the horizontal electric field that they create is short circuited by the earth. Figure 2 : Geometry of Tropo-Scatter Signal PropagationGround wave propagation is dominant only at relatively low frequencies, up to a few MHz, so itneedn't concern us here. Sky wave propagation is dependent on reflection from the ionosphere, aregion of rarified air high above the earth's surface that is ionized by sunlight (primarilyultraviolet radiation). The ionosphere is responsible for long-distance communication in the3

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