Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword or section
Like this
1Activity
×

Table Of Contents

0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Iran- U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses-2009

Iran- U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses-2009

Ratings: (0)|Views: 4,632|Likes:
Published by CFHeather

More info:

Published by: CFHeather on Jan 27, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See More
See less

01/28/2013

pdf

text

original

 
CRS Report for Congress
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses
Kenneth Katzman
Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs July 2, 2009
Congressional Research Service
7-5700www.crs.govRL32048
 
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy ResponsesCongressional Research Service
Summary
President Obama has said his Administration shares the goals of the previous Administration tocontain Iran’s strategic capabilities and regional influence, but the Obama Administrationformulated approaches to achieve those goals that differ from those of its predecessor—inparticular through expanded direct diplomatic engagement with Iran. This effort was put intopractice with messages to the Iranian people by President Obama, and through invitations to andcontact with Iranian diplomats at multilateral meetings, including those on Iran’s nuclearprogram. The Administration also de-emphasized or discontinued policies that Iranian leadersconsidered hostile including: ratcheting up international sanctions, efforts to promote democracyin Iran, and openly discussing the potential for U.S. military action.The Administration strategy on Iran is in some flux because of the allegations of a “stolenelection” by the challengers to declared winner of the June 12, 2009 presidential election,incumbent President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, and the crackdown against protesters whodemanded a new vote. President Obama has criticized Iran’s use of violence against protesters,and observers say that the Administration might try to take advantage of Iran’s internal weaknessto obtain a compromise that curbs Iran’s nuclear program. If Iran refuses to return to the nuclearbargaining table, the Administration might focus, at an earlier than expected stage, on sanctioningand pressuring Iran. Bills in the 111
th
Congress, such as H.R. 2194 and S. 908, would tighten U.S.sanctions on Iran by amending the Iran Sanctions Act to penalize sales to Iran of gasoline andsome of the measures contained in these bills have begun to advance as a consequence of theelection-related violence. Congress also has passed resolutions that express solidarity with thedemonstrators and condemn the regime’s repression of them.The Obama Administration has not changed the previous Administration’s characterization of Iran as a “profound threat to U.S. national security interests,” a perception generated primarily byIran’s nuclear program and its military assistance to armed groups in Iraq and Afghanistan, to thePalestinian group Hamas, and to Lebanese Hezbollah. The U.S. policy approach was to try toprevent a nuclear breakout by Iran primarily by applying progressive multilateral economicpressure on Iran while also offering it potential cooperation should it suspend its enrichment of uranium. Multilateral efforts to pressure Iran include three U.N. Security Council resolutions(1737, 1747, and 1803) that ban weapons of mass destruction (WMD)-related trade with Iran;freeze the assets of Iran’s nuclear entities and personalities; prevent Iran from transferring armsoutside Iran; ban international travel by some Iranians; call for inspections of some Iranian seaand airborne cargo shipments; and call for restrictions on dealings with some Iranian banks.Separate U.S. efforts to persuade European governments to curb trade, investment, and credits toIran; and to convince foreign banks not to do business with Iran, began to weaken Iran’seconomy, compounding the effect of lower oil prices since mid-2008. To emphasize its approach,the George W. Bush Administration built a substantial naval presence in the Persian Gulf.This report is updated regularly. For further information, see CRS Report RS20871,
The IranSanctions Act (ISA)
, by Kenneth Katzman, CRS Report RS22323,
 Iran’s Activities and Influencein Iraq
, by Kenneth Katzman, and CRS Report RL34544,
 Iran’s Nuclear Program: Status
, byPaul K. Kerr.
 
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy ResponsesCongressional Research Service
Contents
Political History..........................................................................................................................1
 
Regime Structure, Stability, and Elections...................................................................................2
 
The Supreme Leader, His Powers, and Other Ruling Councils...............................................2
 
The Presidency/Mahmoud Ahmadinejad...............................................................................4
 
Ahmadinejad’s Policies and Popularity............................................................................5
 
June 12, 2009, Presidential Elections...............................................................................7
 
Election Dispute and Aftermath.......................................................................................7
 
Human Rights and Dissent........................................................................................................11
 
Exiled Opposition Groups...................................................................................................13
 
People’s Mojahedin Organization of Iran (PMOI)/Camp Ashraf....................................13
 
Other Armed Groups.....................................................................................................14
 
The Son of the Former Shah..........................................................................................15
 
Other Activists..............................................................................................................15
 
Iran’s Strategic Capabilities and Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs..................................15
 
Conventional Military/Revolutionary Guard/Qods Force.....................................................15
 
Nuclear Program and Related International Diplomacy.......................................................18
 
Iran’s Arguments and the International Response...........................................................19
 
Establishment of “P5+1” Contact Group/June 2006 Incentive Package..........................21
 
Resolution 1696............................................................................................................21
 
Resolution 1737............................................................................................................22
 
Resolution 1747 and Results.........................................................................................22
 
Resolution 1803 and Additional Incentives....................................................................22
 
Resolution 1835............................................................................................................23
 
The P5+1 Process Under President Obama....................................................................23
 
Chemical Weapons, Biological Weapons, and Missiles........................................................24
 
Ballistic Missiles/Warheads...........................................................................................25
 
Foreign Policy and Support for Terrorist Groups.......................................................................26
 
Relations with the Persian Gulf States.................................................................................27
 
Iranian Policy in Iraq...........................................................................................................29
 
Supporting Palestinian Militant Groups...............................................................................30
 
Iran and Hamas.............................................................................................................30
 
Lebanese Hezbollah and Syria.............................................................................................31
 
Syria.............................................................................................................................32
 
Central Asia and the Caspian...............................................................................................33
 
Afghanistan and Pakistan....................................................................................................33
 
Pakistan........................................................................................................................34
 
Al Qaeda.............................................................................................................................35
 
Latin America.....................................................................................................................35
 
India...................................................................................................................................36
 
Africa.................................................................................................................................36
 
U.S. Policy Responses, Options, and Legislation.......................................................................36
 
Policy During the Clinton and George W. Bush Administrations..........................................37
 
George W. Bush Administration Policy.........................................................................37
 
Overview of Obama Administration Policy.........................................................................38
 
Implementation of the Engagement Policy....................................................................38
 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->