Observation of Force and Torque in a Current LoopUsing a Simplified Electric Motor
Plaridel, Neopet, ChuvaneshcaPhysics 72.1 FDE2 National Institute of Physics, University of the PhilippinesDiliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
The group replicated a DC motor to be ableto observe the force and torque present on acurrent loop. The motor set-up used permanent bar magnet on a DC Battery (size D) coiled fifteen times with a magnetic wire.This paper discusses our observations on howelectricity and magnetism concepts apply onan actual motor through the aid of a simplified motor design.
At the end of the activity, the group was ableto induce a net torque effect in the coil. Thecoil either oscillates or rotates depending onthe strength of the current and/or the magnet.With the aid of known theories on the presenceof force and torque on a current loop, the group was able to observe how a motor works.
A machine that converts electrical energyinto mechanical energy is called a
. Thedesign of the galvanometer that was used onclass is very similar to the design of an electricmotor. If the design of a galvanometer wasmodified slightly, so that deflection makes acomplete rather than a partial rotation, an
is produced. The principaldifference between a galvanometer and amotor is that for the latter, the current is madeto change direction every time the coil makes ahalf rotation. After being forced to turn onerotation, the coil continues in motion just intime for the current to reverse, whereuponinstead of the coil reversing direction, it isforced to continue another half rotation in thesame direction. This happens in cyclic fashionto produce continuous rotation, which has been harnessed to run clocks, operate gadgets,and lift heavy loads.The group aims to be able to create animprovised and fully functional DC motor.The principal goal is to be able to identify thefactors that determine how the coiled wirefrom our improvised set-up rotates in a DCmotor. The direction of the magnetic field andthe current flow on a conductor will also beobserved and analyzed with the aid of theknown governing concepts of electricity andmagnetism.
To be able to construct a simplified model of an electric motor, the following materials areneeded: a DC Battery (size D), electrical tape,copper/magnetic wire, a permanent bar magnet(and a small circular magnet if preferred), two