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Background EssayLSA2 Given to Delta

Background EssayLSA2 Given to Delta

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Published by Adele Rocheforte

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Published by: Adele Rocheforte on Jan 27, 2011
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04/14/2013

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Background Essay :Language SkillsAssignment LSA2
Writing :Helping learners writetransactional letters using the Productand Process Approaches.
 By Adele Rocheforte -Anness
Contents:
Introduction…………………………………………………2Analysis………………………………………………………..2,3,4Problems and Solutions ……………………………..4,5,6Conclusion…………………………………………………….7Bibliography………………………………………………….7Word Count2493
1
 
Introduction
Writing letters and emails asking for or giving information are part of theCambridge exams for all levels. As I teach mainly exam orientated classes,this genre of writing is of interest to me and my students. I have limited thescope of my Essay to transactional writing because in addition to masteringthis skill to pass an exam , I view this as a practical skill which students mayneed later on in life e.g to write a job application .Students rate their writing skills as average to poor in both LI ,L2,feel thatwriting takes up speaking time in class and prefer to do it for homework.With this in mind I have chosen to further my understanding of The Product andProcess Approaches to writing , exploring ways in which I can encouragelearners to obtain better results.
Analysis
Writing is thought of as a “
forgotten skill
“ ( Bowden,T. &Marks,J.1994p143)often given as homework and seen by students as being of little use andtherefore boring . This is true in all classrooms ESL and non. Writing isdifficult ,it requires us to be silent ,to organize our ideas ,to understand whywe are writing, to be accurate and to use an appropriate style and vocabulary.In
Transactional writing
,you are
communicating
for a
purpose
,perhapsto ask for information, to complain ,to apply for a job or to thank somebody andyou expect a reply ,you have unanswered questions .Your writing is usuallyformal as you do not know the person you are writing to .
The following sub-skills apply
Use paragraphs, to give an order to your thoughts and organize thecontent coherently.
Plan the content. The first paragraph stating the reason why you arewriting e.g
I am writing to ask you about your cooking course,
the secondparagraph to ask for information
e.g when is it possible to begin thecourse?
Etc and finally a conclusion asking for a reply ,
I am lookingforward to your reply 
….
Use punctuation correctly, question and exclamation marks ,full stops,spelling ,commas and colons.
Uses standard forms of address ,such as
Dear Sir or Madam
for formalcorrespondence and end appropriately e.g
Yours faithfully
Use an appropriate style for your intention ,abbreviations and phrasalverbs are not used e.
g could 
instead of 
can
,
arrive
instead of 
get in.
 
Varying language to avoid repetition.
Keep in mind why you are writing ,what information you require, or wishto give.
Spell correctly.2
 
Write drafts as necessary, correct errors of content or language.
Use a range of cohesive devices e.g
whereas
The Product and Process Approaches to writing
 The
Product approach
or
Model Text Approach
was developed in the late70’s and early 80’s. Using a model text ,learners’ attention is drawn to certaingrammatical, lexical, layout and register features via controlled practice of tasks. Learners then produce a similar text. This follows the presentation-practice-production or PPP teaching approach in vogue at the time.“The learner is not allowed to create in target language at all ….. the use of language is the manipulation of the fixed patterns;…these patterns are learnedby imitation ; and not until they have been learned can originality occur …”(PIncas, A. 1962: p 185-6)Prior to this approach writing in a foreign language was seen as an intellectualexercise to provide consolidation of structures studied previously ,rather thana skill in its own right.By the late 80’s the Process approach was introduced. This emphasized thecreativity and unpredictability of writing where the writer is proceeding backand forth between the various stages to produce a finished text .
The Product Approach
 
(Badger,R and White,G. 2000)
Stage 1 Pre-Writing.
Model Texts are read ,features of genre highlighted e. g. formal letter attentiondrawn to
Dear Sir /Madam
and ending
Yours faithfully.
 
Stage 2
,
Controlled Writing or Drafting.
Controlled practice of the isolated features e. g if the formal letter begins with
Dear Mr Smith
you end with
Yours sincerely.
 
Stage 3 Guided Writing
 The organization of ideas.
Stage 4 Free Writing or
 
Revising 
Students produce the product.
The Process Approach
(Harmer,J.2007 p326)(Tribble,C 1996p39)(Sensenbaugh,R 1990 p382-3)
Stage 1 Planning or Pre-Writing
3

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