This report was written by Johanna Miller, Udi Ofer, Alexander Artz,Tara Bahl, Tara Foster, Deinya Phenix, Nick Sheehan and Holly A. Thomas.It was edited by Jennifer Carnig, Mike Cummings, Donna Lieberman and Arthur Eisenberg. It was designed by Lauren Webster.Data analysis was performed by Deinya Phenix and Tara Bahl, formerlyof the Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University, andJohanna Miller.The authors wish to thank all members of the Student Safety Coalition fortheir efforts in making this report a reality. Special thanks are due to AngelaJones, Nancy Ginsburg, Nelson Mar, Jessica Fisher and Jillian Sebastian.This report is dedicated to Beatrice Lieberman, a lifelong educator andpioneer for social justice who understood the power of positive reinforcementand what makes kids tick.It was made possible by the generous donations of theNYCLU Board of Directors and its supporters.
Executive SummaryI. Introduction
MethodologyZero Tolerance Discipline and SuspensionsWhat is Zero Tolerance?
II. Overview of New York City Discipline Policies
Roots of Disciplinary PoliciesStudents’ Due Process RightsNew York City Discipline CodeReliance on Police in Schools
III. New York City Suspensions Over the Last Decade
Suspensions Increase while Population DecreasesBlack Students are Suspended at Disproportionate RatesStudents with Disabilities are Suspended at Disproportionate RatesThe Academic E
ect of SuspensionsSub-Par Education at Suspension SitesSuspensions Increase Every Spring
IV. Conclusion and Recommendations
End the Practice of Zero Tolerance DisciplineMandate the Use of Positive Discipline StrategiesProtect Students’ Rights in Suspension HearingsIncrease Transparency Regarding School Safety and DisciplineProvide Support Services for Students’ Emotional and Psychological NeedsEncourage Meaningful Public Input on the Discipline Process
Appendix A: DeﬁnitionsAppendix B: FOIL DataAppendix C: List of Subjective Infractions15