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Chapter 39: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals

Chapter 39: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals

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Published by kuitang
Notes from Campbell & Reece Biology
Notes from Campbell & Reece Biology

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Published by: kuitang on Aug 15, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/09/2014

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Chapter39:PlantResponsestoInternaland   ExternalSignals  
19April2008 
Content
1SignalTransductionandPlantResponses
1.1Signaltransductionpathwayslinkinternalandenvironmentalsig- nalstochemicalresponses......................1.1.1Reception...........................1.1.2Transduction.........................1.1.3Response...........................1.1.4TheGreeningProteins....................
2PlantResponsestoHormones
2.1Researchonhowplantsgrowtowardlightledtothediscoveryof planthormones............................2.2Planthormoneshelpcoordinategrowth,development,andresponsestoenvironmentalstimuli..................2.2.1Auxin.............................2.2.2Cytokinins..........................2.2.3Gibberellins..........................2.2.4AbscisicAcid.........................2.2.5Ethylene............................2.2.6Brassinosteroids.......................
3PlantResponsestoLight
3.1Blue-lightphotoreceptorsareaheterogenousgroupofpigments.3.2Phytochromesfunctionasphotoreceptorsinmanyplantresponses tolight.................................3.2.1ThePhytochromeSwitchandSeedGermination.....3.2.2ThePhytochroemSwitchandShadeAvoidance......3.3Biologicalclockscontrolcircadianrhythmnsinplantsandother eukaryotes...............................3.4Lightentrainsthebiologicalclock..................3.5Photoperiodismsynchronizesmanyplantresponsestochangesof season.................................
 
3.5.1PhotoperiodismandtheControlofFlowering.......3.5.2IsThereaFloweringHormone?...............3.5.3MeristemTransitionfromVegetativeGrowthtoFlowering
4PlantResponsestoEnvironmentalStimuliOtherThanLight
4.1Plantsrespondtoenvironmentalstimulithroughacombination ofdevelopmentalandphysiologicalmechanisms..........4.1.1ResponsestoGravity....................4.1.2ResponsestoMechanicalStimuli..............4.1.3ResponsestoStress.....................1
5PlantDefense:ResponsestoHerbivoresandPathogens1
5.1Plantsdeterherbivoreswithbothphysicalandchemicaldefenses11 5.2Plantsusemultiplelinesofdefenseagainstpathogens......15.2.1Gene-for-GeneRecognition.................15.2.2HypersensitiveResponse...................15.2.3SystemicAcquiredResistance................1
1SignalTransductionandPlantResponse
1.1Signaltransductionpathwayslinkinternalandenvironmentalsignalstochemicalresponses 
1.Plantgerminateindar
elongatestems
2
Greening 
elongationrateslow,leavesexpand,rootselongate,chlorophyll
1.1.1Reception 
1
Phytochrome. 
Light-absorbingpigmentattachedtoprotein. 
Cytoplasmic. 
2.Discoveredfrom 
aurea 
L.gold-colored 
)mutants
1.1.2Transduction 
1.Phytochromeverysensitive2
Secondmessenger
activatecascade.Activatetranscriptionfactor(a)cGMP(cyclicguanosidemonophosphate)(b)C
2+
-calmodulincomplex. 
1.1.3ResponsTranscriptionalRegulation
TranscriptionfactorsbindtoDNA.Repressableorinducible. 
 
Post-TranslationalModicationofProteins
1.Proteinkinasescatalyze 
phosphorylation 
2.Proteinphosphatasesdephosphorylateturnosignals
1.1.4TheGreeningProteins
1.Enzymesthatparticipateinphotosynthesis2.Enzymestosupplychemicalstockforchlorophyll3
Hormones
2PlantResponsestoHormone
1.Producedoneplace;receiveelsewhere. 2.Minutequantitiessucient
2.1Researchonhowplantsgrowtowardlightledtothe discoveryofplanthormones 
1
Tropis
isgrowthtowardsorawayfromstimulus(a
Phototropism
2.Coleoptilecasingofgrassshoot.Shadedcellsgrowfaster,bendingplanttowardslight.Experiments(a)Darwin&Darwin:tipofcoleoptilesenselight(b)Boysen-Jensen:growthsignalchemical;travelsdown. (c)Went:curvebecaus
[
auxi
]
ondarkersideofcoleoptile. 3.Others(e.g.dicots)dierent
[
growthinhibitors 
]
onlightside. 
2.2Planthormoneshelpcoordinategrowth,developmentandresponsestoenvironmentalstimul
1.Small;passacrosscel
walls. 
2.Aectdivision,elongation,dierentiation3.Relativeconcentration,notabsoluteamountmoresignicant

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