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Environmental Science Study Outline

Environmental Science Study Outline

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Published by kuitang
An outline of Botkin and Keller, Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet following the AP outline.

MORE NOTES at the repository at http://supernova.dyndns.org/csmfoc/
An outline of Botkin and Keller, Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet following the AP outline.

MORE NOTES at the repository at http://supernova.dyndns.org/csmfoc/

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Published by: kuitang on Aug 15, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/02/2013

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APEnvironmentalScienceStudyOutline  
KuiTang August2008 
ThisguidefollowstheCollegeBoard'sTopicOutline. 
EnvironmentalScience:EarthasaLivingPlane
byBotkinandKeller,6thedition,wasthemaisourceforthesenotes
Content
1EarthSystemsandResources
1.1EarthScienceConcepts.......................1.2TheAtmosphere...........................1.3GlobalWaterResourcesandUse..................1.4SoilandSoilDynamics........................
2TheLivingWorld
2.1EcosystemStructure.........................2.2EnergyFlow.............................12.3EcosystemDiversity.........................12.4NaturalEcosystemChange.....................12.5NaturalBiogeochemicalCycles...................1
3Populations1
3.1PopulationBiologyConcepts....................13.2HumanPopulation..........................13.2.1HumanPopulationDynamics................13.2.2PopulationSize........................13.2.3ImpactsofPopulationGrowth...............1
4LandandWaterUse1
4.1Agriculture..............................14.1.1FeedingaGrowingPopulation...............14.1.2ControllingPests.......................14.2Forestry................................14.3Rangelands..............................14.4OtherLandUses...........................14.4.1UrbanLandDevelopment..................14.4.2TransportationInfrastructure................2
 
4.4.3PublicandFederalLands..................24.4.4LandConservationOptions.................24.4.5SustainableLand-UseStrategies..............24.5Mining.................................24.6Fishing................................24.7GlobalEconomics...........................2
5EnergyResourcesandConsumption2
5.1EnergyConcepts...........................25.2EnergyConsumption.........................25.2.1History............................25.2.2PresentGlobalEnergyUse.................25.2.3FutureEnergyNeeds.....................25.3FossilFuelResourcesandUse....................25.4NuclearEnergy............................25.5HydroelectricPower.........................35.6EnergyConservation.........................35.7RenewableEnergy..........................3
6Pollution3
6.1PollutionTypes............................36.1.1AirPollution.........................36.1.2NoisePollution........................46.1.3WaterPollution........................46.1.4SolidWaste..........................46.2ImpactsontheEnvironmentandHumanHealth.........46.2.1HazardstoHumanHealth..................46.2.2HazardousChemicalsintheEnvironment.........56.3EconomicImpacts..........................5
7GlobalChange5
7.1StratosphericOzone.........................57.2GlobalWarming...........................57.3LossofBiodiversity..........................57.3.1Habitatloss;overuse;pollution;introducedspecies;en- dangeredandextinctspecies................57.3.2MaintenanceThroughConservation............57.3.3LawsandTreaties......................5
1EarthSystemsandResource
1.AverageResidenceTime(ART):ratioofsizeofreservoirtorateoftransfer throughreservoir: 
ART 
=
S/F 
Wher
issizeofreservoiran
israteoftransfer
 
1.1EarthScienceConcept
1
Lithospher
iscrust2.Geologicalcyclesinclud(a)Tectonic:cancreateecologicalislands. i.Divergentplatesboundariesoccurataspreadingoceanridge (seaoorspreading). ii.Convergentplateboundariesoccurwhenplatescollide. A
Subduction 
istheheavyoceanrockdivingbeneaththelight continentalrock.Mayproducecoastalmountainranges(An- des)B.Continentalcollisionsmayproducecontinentalmountains. iii.Transformfaultboundariesoccurwhenoneplateslidespastan- other. (b)Hydrologi(c)Roc(d)Biogeochemical 3
Earthquake 
occurswhentectonicplatesunderpressure 
rupture, 
releasinhugeamountsofenergy(morethanalargenuclearexplosion),usuallyat 1015kmalongfaults(a)Faultplanesbargroundwater.Rockscrushed,thenalteredintoclayWaterforcedtosurface,creatingvitalhabitats,especiallywherearid4
Volcaniceruption 
occurswhenmagmarisestothesurface.Energreleasedvariesbroadly.Volcanoesoccuralongtectonicplateboundarieswhereactivemeltingofrocksfavorsextrusionofmagma, 
o
alongcentral partsofplateswherelocalhotspotsheatandmeltrock. 5
Tsunam
isaseriesoflargewavesproducedaftertheverticaldisturbance ofocean.80%areproducedbyearthquakes.Theytravelatjetaircrafspeedsbutslowandgettallerastheyapproachthesurface
1.2TheAtmospher
1.Compositionis78%
2
,21%
2
,0.9%Ar,0.03%C
2
2.Structureinorderis:troposphere,tropopause(condensationtrapswater vapor),stratosphere(
3
),stratopause,mesosphere,mesopause,thermo- sphere. 3.25%ofincomingsolarradiationreectedstraightintospace,25%absorbed byatmosphere

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