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Multicast Multi-Path Power Efficient Routing in Mobile ADHOC

Multicast Multi-Path Power Efficient Routing in Mobile ADHOC

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IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.10 No.4, April 2010319
Multicast Multi-path Power Efficient Routing in Mobile ADHOCnetworks
S.Gunasekaran
and Dr.K.Duraiswamy
††
Faculty of Post Graduate Studies, KSR College of Technology, Namakkal, India-637215
††
Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, KSR College of Technology, Namakkal, India-637215
Summary
The proposal of this paper presents a measurement-basedrouting algorithm to load balance intra domain traffic alongmultiple paths for multiple multicast sources. Multiple paths areestablished using application-layer overlaying. The proposedalgorithm is able to converge under different network models,where each model reflects a different set of assumptions aboutthe multicasting capabilities of the network. The algorithm isderived from simultaneous perturbation stochasticapproximation and relies only on noisy estimates frommeasurements. Simulation results are presented to demonstratethe additional benefits obtained by incrementally increasing themulticasting capabilities. The main application of mobile ad hocnetwork is in emergency rescue operations and battlefields. Thispaper addresses the problem of power awareness routing toincrease lifetime of overall network. Since nodes in mobile adhoc network can move randomly, the topology may changearbitrarily and frequently at unpredictable times. Transmissionand reception parameters may also impact the topology.Therefore it is very difficult to find and maintain an optimalpower aware route. In this work a scheme has been proposed tomaximize the network lifetime and minimizes the powerconsumption during the source to destination routeestablishment. The proposed work is aimed to provide efficientpower aware routing considering real and non real time datatransfer.
 Key words:
Consumption, Lifetime, Perturbation, Stochastic
1. Introduction
Multicast traffic over the Internet is growing steadily withincreasing number of demanding applications includingInternet broadcasting, video conferences, data streamapplications and web-content distributions [1]. Many of these applications require certain rate guarantees, anddemand that the network be utilized more efficiently thanwith current approaches to satisfy the rate requirements.Traffic mapping (load balancing) is one particular methodto carry out traffic engineering, which deals with theproblem of assigning the traffic load onto pre-establishedpaths to meet certain requirements. Our focus is toscrutinize the effects of load balancing the multicasttraffic in an intra domain network. The existing work onmulticast routing with power constraints are refer in theliteratures.[2],[3],[4],[5],[7].Propose a solution to optimally distribute the traffic alongmultiple multicast trees. However, the solution covers thecase when there is only one active source in the network.In addition, it is assumed that the gradient of an analyticalcost function is available, which is continuouslydifferentiable and strictly convex. These assumptions maynot be reasonable due to the dynamic nature of networks.[8], [9], [11].Even though they approach the problem under a moregeneral architecture, practicality of these solutions islimited due to the unrealistic assumption that the network is lossless as long as the average link rates do not exceedthe link capacities. Moreover, a packet loss is actuallymuch more costly when network coding is employed sinceit potentially affects the decoding of a large number of other packets. In addition, any factor that changes the min-cut max-flow value between a source and a receiverrequires the code to be updated at every nodesimultaneously, which brings high level of complexity andcoordination.The proposal in this paper presented a distributed optimalrouting algorithm to balance the load along multiple pathsfor multiple multicast sessions. Our measurement-basedalgorithm does not assume the existence of the gradient of an analytical cost function and is inspired by the unicastrouting algorithm based on Simultaneous PerturbationStochastic Approximation (SPSA). In addition, we addressthe optimal multipath multicast routing problem in a moregeneral framework than having multiple trees. Weconsider different network models with differentfunctionalities.With this generalized framework, our goal is to examinethe benefits observed by the addition of new capabilitiesto the network beyond basic operations such as storingand forwarding. In particular, we will first analyze thetraditional network model without any IP multicastingfunctionality where multiple paths are established using(application-layer) overlay nodes. Next, we consider anetwork model in which multiple trees can beestablished.[6],[9] Finally, look at the generalized modelby allowing receivers to receive multicast packets atarbitrarily different rates along a multicast tree. Such anassumption potentially creates a complex bookkeepingproblem since source nodes have to make sure eachreceiver gets a distinct set of packets from different trees
Manuscript received April 5, 2010Manuscript revised April 20, 2010
 
IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.10 No.4, April 2010320while satisfying the rates associated with each receiveralong each tree.The measurement-based routing algorithm [13] to loadbalance intra domain traffic along multiple paths formultiple multicast sources. Multiple paths are establishedusing application-layer overlaying. The proposedalgorithm is able to converge under different network models, where each model reflects a different set of assumptions about the multicasting capabilities of thenetwork. The algorithm is derived from simultaneousperturbation stochastic approximation and relies only onnoisy estimates from measurements. Simulation resultsare presented to demonstrate the additional benefitsobtained by incrementally increasing the multicastingcapabilities.
2. Multipath Multicasting
The proposed scheme is multicast video in multiple pathsover wireless networks. It consists of two parts. The firstpart is to split the video into multiple parts and transmiteach part in a different path. In the latter part, employmulticast method to transmit the video packets to all thenodes. In this scheme, we assume that the network islightly loaded, i.e., mobility and poor channel conditionrather than congestion are major reasons for packet drop.Begin by showing the feasibility of multiple pathmulticasts, and then move on to describe ways to forwardpackets through multiple paths. The proposed method hasthree basic steps, discovery of the shortest route,maintenance of the Route and Data Transmission.
2.1 Route Discovery
The first criterion in wireless medium is to discover theavailable routes and establish them before transmitting.To understand this better let us look at the example below.The below architecture consists of 11 nodes in which twobeing source and destination others will be used for datatransmission. The selection of path for data transmissionis done based on the availability of the nodes in the regionusing the ad-hoc on demand distance vector routingalgorithm. By using the Ad hoc on Demand DistanceVector routing protocol, the routes are created on demand,i.e. only when a route is needed for which there is no“fresh” record in the routing table. In order to facilitatedetermination of the freshness of routing information,AODV maintains the time since when an entry has beenlast utilized. A routing table entry is “expired” after acertain predetermined threshold of time. Consider all thenodes to be in the position. Now the shortest path is to bedetermined by implementing the Ad hoc on DemandDistance Vector routing protocol in the wirelesssimulation environment for periodically sending themessages to the neighbors and the shortest path.In the MANET, the nodes are prone to undergo change intheir positions. Hence the source should be continuouslytracking their positions. By implementing the AODVprotocol in the simulation scenario it transmits the firstpart of the video through the below shown path. After fewseconds the nodes move to new positions.
2.2 Route Maintenance
The next step is the maintenance of these routes which isequally important. The source has to continuously monitorthe position of the nodes to make sure the data is beingcarried through the path to the destination without loss. Inany case, if the position of the nodes change and thesource doesn’t make a note of it then the packets will belost and eventually have to be resent.
2.3 Data Transmission
The path selection, maintenance and data transmission areconsecutive process which happen in split seconds in real-time transmission. Hence the paths allocated priory is usedfor data transmission. The first path allocated previously isnow used for data transmission. The data is transferredthrough the highlighted path. The second path selected isnow used for data transmission. The data is transferredthrough the highlighted path. The third path selected isused for data transmission. The data is transferred throughthe highlighted path.
3. Multipath Multicasting Using PowerAlgorithm
Since a MANET may consist of nodes which are not ableto be re-charged in an expected time period, energyconservation is crucial to maintaining the life-time of sucha node. In networks consisting of these nodes, where it isimpossible to replenish the nodes’ power, techniques forenergy-efficient routing as well as efficient datadissemination between nodes is crucial.An energy-efficient mechanism for unipath routing insensor networks called directed diffusion has beenproposed. Directed diffusion is an on-demand routingapproach. In directed diffusion, a (sensing) node whichhas data to send periodically broadcasts it. When nodesreceive data, they send a reinforcement message to a pre-selected neighbor which indicates that it desires to receivemore data from this selected neighbor. As thesereinforcement messages are propagated back to the source,an implicit data path is set up; each intermediate node setsup state that forwards similar data towards the previoushop.
 
IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.10 No.4, April 2010321 
Fig: 1 Multipath multicast power Routing
The way of Directed diffusion is an on-demand routingapproach; it was designed for energy efficiency so it onlysets up a path if there is data between a source and a sink.However, the major disadvantage of the scheme, in termsof energy efficiency, is the periodic flooding of data. Inorder to avoid the flooding overhead, proposes the setupand maintenance of alternate paths in advance using alocalized path setup technique based upon the notion of path reinforcement.The goal of a localized reinforcement-based mechanism isfor individual nodes to measure short term trafficcharacteristics and choose a primary path as well as anumber of alternate paths based upon their empiricalmeasurements. An alternate path is intended to be usedwhen the primary fails. ”Keep-alive” data is sent throughthe alternate paths even when the primary path is in use.Because of this continuous “keep-alive” data stream,nodes can rapidly switch to an alternate path withoutgoing\ through a potentially energy-depleting discoveryprocess for a new alternate path.A multipath routing technique which uses braidedmultipaths is also proposed. Braided multipaths relax therequirement for node disjoint. Multiple paths in a braidare only partially disjoint from each other and are notcompletely node-disjoint. These paths are usually shorterthan node disjoint multipaths and thus consume lessenergy resources; alternate paths should consume anamount of energy comparable to the primary path. Asimple localized technique for constructing braids is asfollows.Base layer (BL) packets are sent along path 2, whileenhancement layer (EL) packers and retransmitted BLpackets are sent along Path 1. A source sends out primarypath reinforcement to its (primary path) neighbor as wellas alternate path reinforcements to its (alternate path)neighbors. Each node in the network performs this sameneighbor and path selection process. The evaluation of theperformance of the proposed energy constrainedalgorithms is a function of the overall goal of minimizingenergy resources. It was found that energy-efficientmultipath routing using the braided multipath approachexpends only 33% of the energy of disjoint paths foralternate path maintenance in some cases, and have a 50%higher resilience to isolated failures.
Fig:2
 
Multipath layered scheme.
The system for transporting video over ad hoc networksusing multipath routing and source coding is proposed.The system considers two types of source coding multiple-description coding and layered coding. Both types of coding create multiple sub-streams out of a single videostream. In multiple-description coding, each sub-streamhas equal importance, and therefore, each sub-streamcontributes equally to the quality level. In layered coding,a base layer stream is created along with multipleenhancement layer streams. The base layer streamprovides a basic level of quality, while each enhancementlayer stream if correctly received add to the quality.Therefore, in layered coding, base layer packets should besent along more reliable paths to ensure that they arereceived at the destination.In the system, the source maintains multiple paths to thedestination and reserves bandwidth along the paths suchthat the total bandwidth falls within an acceptable range.The total number of paths is not necessarily equal to thenumber of streams. Therefore, a path may carry packetsfrom different streams. Similarly, packets from one streammay be allocated to different paths. The task of the sourceis to allocate the packets from each stream among thepaths such that a minimum level of quality can beobserved at the receiver. Depending on the path conditionsand application requirements, the source chooses to usemultiple-description coding or layered coding. The sourcecoder also must adjust the rate allocation to each streamdepending on the available bandwidth. Using intelligentpath selection and traffic allocation along with adaptivesource coding, the system can adapt well to fluctuatingnetwork conditions caused by path failures or changes inavailable bandwidth.A scheme to provide reliable transport for videospecifically using layered coding along with multipathrouting is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the video

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