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unit6_CNC

unit6_CNC

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Published by JiwaKacau

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Published by: JiwaKacau on Jan 28, 2011
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05/05/2011

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J3103/6/1COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL
General Objective
:To understand the concept and principles of computernumerical control (CNC) system.
Specific Objectives
: At the end of the unit you will be able to :
Ø
Understand the main components of the CNC system,
Ø
Understand the point-to-point system (positioning),
Ø
Understand the contouring system (continuoussystem), and
Ø
Write a simple CNC milling program..
UNIT6COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL
OBJECTIVES
 
J3103/6/2COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL
6.0 INTRODUCTION
Computer numerical control
is a system in which a control microcomputeris an integral part of a machine or a piece of equipment (onboard computer). Thepart programmes can be prepared at a remote site by programmer, and it mayincorporate information obtained from drafting software packages and frommachining simulations, in order to ensure that the part programme is bug free.The machine operator can, however, easily and manually programme onboardcomputers. The operator can be modify the programs directly, prepareprogramme for different parts, and store the programmes.Because of the availability of small computers having a large memory,microprocessor(s), and programme-editing capabilities, CNC systems are widelyused today. The availability of low-cost programmable controllers also played amajor role in the successful implementation of CNC in manufacturing plants.Numerical Control is a system where machine action is created from theinsertion of Numeric Data. The Numeric Data is, in the beginning, writtenwords in an easily understood code of letters and numbers (alphanumericcharacters) known as a programme, which in turn is converted by the machinecontrol unit (MCU) into the electrical signals used to control the machinemovements.
INPUT
 
J3103/6/3COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL
The relationship between the words "Numerical" and "Control" is shownbelow.NUMERICALCONTROLTwo important points should be made about N.C. First, the actual N.C.machine tool can do nothing more than it was capable of doing before a controlunit was joined to it. There are now new metal removing principles involved.N.C. machines position and drive the cutting tools, but the same milling cutters,drills, taps, feeds, and other tools still perform the cutting operations. Cuttingspeeds, feeds, and tooling principles must still be adhered to. Given thisknowledge, what is the real advantage of numerical control?Primarily, the idle time or time to move into position for new cuts islimited only by the machine's capacity to respond. Because the machine receivescommands from the machine control unit (MCU), it responds without hesitation.The actual utilisation rate or chip making rate is therefore much higher than ona manually operated machine.The second point is that numerical control machines can initiate nothingon their own. The machine accepts and responds to commands from the controlunit. Even the control unit cannot think, judge, or reason. Without some inputmedium, e.g., punched tape or direct computer link, the machine and control An instructional expression,in a language of numbers,
which
represents a series of commands for specificmachine tool movementsTo control such machineactions as:Directing AlteringCommanding TimingPrescribingCeasingSequencingGuidingInitiating

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