Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Hazards Disaster Management Earthquake, Tsunami, Avalanche

Hazards Disaster Management Earthquake, Tsunami, Avalanche

Ratings: (0)|Views: 734|Likes:
Published by D.V.Bhavanna Rao
Hazards Disaster Management Earthquake, Tsunami, Avalanche
Hazards Disaster Management Earthquake, Tsunami, Avalanche

More info:

Published by: D.V.Bhavanna Rao on Jan 28, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





1. Introduction2. Causes of earthquakes
Interior Structure of the earth
Plate tectonics movements3. General Characteristics
Earthquake Vibrations
Depth of earthquakes
Measurement Scales
Frequency of occurrence of Earthquakes
Earthquake hazards
Fault Displacement and ground shaking
Landslides and avalanches
Ground failure
Tsunami4. Typical Effects
Physical damage
Public Health
Water Supply
Food supplies
Transport Networks
Electricity and Communication5. Predictability6. Indian Earthquakes
Great earthquakes in India
Earthquake risk in Himalayas
Datasheet of Earthquakes in India
Zones of earthquakes of India
Case Studies7. Factors contributing to vulnerability8. Preparedness Measures
Community Preparedness
Public Education
Planning9. Typical Disaster assistance needed
Damage and needs assessment survey10. Earthquake response plan11. Possible risk reduction measuresResources and references
1. Introduction
Earthquakes are one of the most destructive of natural hazards. Earthquake occurs due to sudden transientmotion of the ground as a result of release of elastic energy in a matter of few seconds. The impact of theevent is most traumatic because it affects large area, occurs all on a sudden and unpredictable. They cancause large scale loss of life and property and disrupts essential services such as water supply, seweragesystems, communication and power, transport etc. They not only destroy villages, towns and cities but theaftermath leads to destabilize the economic and social structure of the nation.
2. Causes of Earthquakes
 An Earthquake is a series of underground shock waves and movements on the earth’s surfacecaused by natural processes within the earth’s crust. To learn more on the occurrence of this eventlets know more about the interior of the earth.Interior Structure of the Earth
By analyzing the seismograms from many earthquakes, scientists have discovered that
three main levels or shells 
exist within the Earth (see Figure 1):
The Earth's outermost surface is called thecrust. The crust is relatively light and brittle.Most earthquakes occur within the crust.Scientists believe that below the lithosphere is arelatively narrow, mobile zone in the mantlecalled the
Greekfor weak).
The region just below the crust and extending allthe way down to the Earth's core is called themantle. The
a dense, hot layer of semi-solid rock approximately 2,900 km thick. Thepart of the mantle near the crust, about 50-100kmdown, is especially soft and plastic, and is called theasthenosphere. The rigid lithosphere is thought to "float" or moveabout on the slowly flowingasthenosphere(Figure 2).
Beneath the mantle is the Earth's core. The Earth's core consistsof a fluid
outer core
and a solid
inner core
.Convection currents develop in the viscous Mantle, because ofprevailing high temperature and pressure gradients between theCrust and the Core (Figure 2). The energy for the abovecirculations is derived from the heat produced from the incessant
Source: Earthquake Tip 1,
Learning Earthquake Design and Construction,
IITK- BMPTC.Figure 2:
Local Convective Currentsin the Mantle
Fig 1: Internal Structure of Earth
Source: http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications//text/inside.html
decay of radioactive elements in the rocks throughout the Earth’s interior. These convection currents result ina
of the earth’s mass; hot molten lava comes out and the cold rock mass goes into the Earth. Themass absorbed eventually melts under high temperature and pressure and becomes a part of the Mantle,only to come out again from another location, someday. Many such local circulations are taking place atdifferent regions underneath the Earth’s surface, leading to different portions of the Earth undergoing differentdirections of movements along the surface.
Plate Tectonics Movements 
The convective flows of Mantle materialcause the Crust and some portion of theMantle, to slide on the hot molten outer core.This sliding of Earth’s mass takes place inpieces called
Tectonic Plates 
. The surface ofthe Earth
of seven major tectonicplates (North American Plate, South AmericaPlate, Antarctic Plate, African Plate,Australian Plate, Eurasian Plate and PacificPlate) and many smaller ones (Figure 3).These plates move in different directions andat different speeds from those of theneighbouring ones. Sometimes, the plate inthe front is slower; then, the plate behind itcomes and collides (and
are formed). On the other hand, sometimes two plates move away fromone another (and
are created). In another case, two plates move side-by-side, along the same directionor in opposite directions. These three types of inter-plate interactions are the
boundaries (Figure 4), respectively.
Figure 4: Types of Inter-plate BoundariesDivergent -
where new crust is generated as the plates pull awayfrom each other.
- where crust is destroyed as one plate divesunder another.
- where crust is neither produced nor destroyed asthe plates slide horizontally past each other.
Source: http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications//text/slabs.html

Activity (6)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
alamparvez4 liked this
Bhakta Thukaram liked this
adji liked this
DIRACLTDA liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->