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Hazards Disaster Management Earthquake, Tsunami, Avalanche

Hazards Disaster Management Earthquake, Tsunami, Avalanche

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Published by D.V.Bhavanna Rao
Hazards Disaster Management Earthquake, Tsunami, Avalanche
Hazards Disaster Management Earthquake, Tsunami, Avalanche

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Published by: D.V.Bhavanna Rao on Jan 28, 2011
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06/05/2013

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HANDBOOK ON EARTHQUAKES HAZARDS AND DISASTERSContents
1. Introduction2. Causes of earthquakes
-
Interior Structure of the earth
-
Plate tectonics movements3. General Characteristics
-
Earthquake Vibrations
-
Depth of earthquakes
-
Measurement Scales
-
Frequency of occurrence of Earthquakes
-
Earthquake hazards
-
Fault Displacement and ground shaking
-
Landslides and avalanches
-
Ground failure
-
Liquefaction
-
Tsunami4. Typical Effects
-
Physical damage
-
Casualties
-
Public Health
-
Water Supply
-
Food supplies
-
Transport Networks
-
Electricity and Communication5. Predictability6. Indian Earthquakes
-
Great earthquakes in India
-
Earthquake risk in Himalayas
-
Datasheet of Earthquakes in India
-
Zones of earthquakes of India
-
Case Studies7. Factors contributing to vulnerability8. Preparedness Measures
-
Community Preparedness
-
Public Education
-
Planning9. Typical Disaster assistance needed
-
Damage and needs assessment survey10. Earthquake response plan11. Possible risk reduction measuresResources and references
Earthquake
 
1. Introduction
Earthquakes are one of the most destructive of natural hazards. Earthquake occurs due to sudden transientmotion of the ground as a result of release of elastic energy in a matter of few seconds. The impact of theevent is most traumatic because it affects large area, occurs all on a sudden and unpredictable. They cancause large scale loss of life and property and disrupts essential services such as water supply, seweragesystems, communication and power, transport etc. They not only destroy villages, towns and cities but theaftermath leads to destabilize the economic and social structure of the nation.
2. Causes of Earthquakes
1
 An Earthquake is a series of underground shock waves and movements on the earth’s surfacecaused by natural processes within the earth’s crust. To learn more on the occurrence of this eventlets know more about the interior of the earth.Interior Structure of the Earth
By analyzing the seismograms from many earthquakes, scientists have discovered that
three main levels or shells 
exist within the Earth (see Figure 1):
CRUST
The Earth's outermost surface is called thecrust. The crust is relatively light and brittle.Most earthquakes occur within the crust.Scientists believe that below the lithosphere is arelatively narrow, mobile zone in the mantlecalled the
asthenosphere 
(from
asthenes,
Greekfor weak).
Mantle
The region just below the crust and extending allthe way down to the Earth's core is called themantle. The
mantle,
a dense, hot layer of semi-solid rock approximately 2,900 km thick. Thepart of the mantle near the crust, about 50-100kmdown, is especially soft and plastic, and is called theasthenosphere. The rigid lithosphere is thought to "float" or moveabout on the slowly flowingasthenosphere(Figure 2).
CORE
Beneath the mantle is the Earth's core. The Earth's core consistsof a fluid
outer core
and a solid
inner core
.Convection currents develop in the viscous Mantle, because ofprevailing high temperature and pressure gradients between theCrust and the Core (Figure 2). The energy for the abovecirculations is derived from the heat produced from the incessant
1
Source: Earthquake Tip 1,
 
Learning Earthquake Design and Construction,
IITK- BMPTC.Figure 2:
Local Convective Currentsin the Mantle
 
Fig 1: Internal Structure of Earth
Source: http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications//text/inside.html
 
decay of radioactive elements in the rocks throughout the Earth’s interior. These convection currents result ina
circulation 
of the earth’s mass; hot molten lava comes out and the cold rock mass goes into the Earth. Themass absorbed eventually melts under high temperature and pressure and becomes a part of the Mantle,only to come out again from another location, someday. Many such local circulations are taking place atdifferent regions underneath the Earth’s surface, leading to different portions of the Earth undergoing differentdirections of movements along the surface.
Plate Tectonics Movements 
The convective flows of Mantle materialcause the Crust and some portion of theMantle, to slide on the hot molten outer core.This sliding of Earth’s mass takes place inpieces called
Tectonic Plates 
. The surface ofthe Earth
consists
of seven major tectonicplates (North American Plate, South AmericaPlate, Antarctic Plate, African Plate,Australian Plate, Eurasian Plate and PacificPlate) and many smaller ones (Figure 3).These plates move in different directions andat different speeds from those of theneighbouring ones. Sometimes, the plate inthe front is slower; then, the plate behind itcomes and collides (and
mountains 
are formed). On the other hand, sometimes two plates move away fromone another (and
rifts 
are created). In another case, two plates move side-by-side, along the same directionor in opposite directions. These three types of inter-plate interactions are the
convergent 
,
divergent 
and
transform 
boundaries (Figure 4), respectively.
Figure 4: Types of Inter-plate BoundariesDivergent -
where new crust is generated as the plates pull awayfrom each other.
Convergent
- where crust is destroyed as one plate divesunder another.
Transformational
- where crust is neither produced nor destroyed asthe plates slide horizontally past each other.

Source: http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications//text/slabs.html

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