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Chapter 1 - Representation of Signals

Chapter 1 - Representation of Signals

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Chapter 1 - Representation of Signals
Chapter 1 - Representation of Signals

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Published by: MyWBUT - Home for Engineers on Jan 28, 2011
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CHAPTER 1
Representation of Signals
1.1 Introduction 1.11.2 Periodic Signals and Fourier Series 1.2
1.2.1 Periodic signals 1.21.2.2 Fourier series 1.41.2.3 Convergence of Fourier series and Gibbs phenomenon 1.19
1.3 Aperiodic Signals and Fourier Transform 1.22
1.3.1 Fourier transform 1.241.3.2 Dirichlet conditions 1.29
1.4 Properties of the Fourier Transform 1.311.5 Unified Approach to Fourier Transform 1.49
1.5.1 Unit impulse (Dirac delta function) 1.491.5.2 Impulse response and convolution 1.601.5.3 Signum function and unit step function 1.69
1.6 Correlation Functions 1.78
1.6.1 Cross-correlation functions 1.781.6.2 Autocorrelation function 1.85
1.7 Hilbert Transform 1.95
1.7.1 Properties of the Hilbert transform 1.100
1.8 Bandpass Signals 1.104
1.8.1 Pre-envelope 1.1071.8.2 Complex envelope 1.111
1.9 Bandpass (BP) Systems 1.119Appendix A1.1: Tabulation of
( )
sin
λ
1.122Appendix A1.2: Fourier transform of
( )
p
x
τ
1.124Appendix A1.3: Complex envelope of the output of a BP System 1.127References 1.130
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Principles of Communication
1.1
 
CHAPTER 1 
Representation of Signals
1.1 Introduction 
The process of (electronic) communication involves the generation,transmission and reception of various types of signals. The communicationprocess becomes fairly difficult, because:a) the transmitted signals may have to travel long distances (there byundergoing severe attenuation) before they can reach the destination
i.e.,the receiver.
 b) of imperfections of the channel over which the signals have to travelc) of interference due to other signals sharing the same channel andd) of
noise 
at the receiver input
1
.In quite a few situations, the desired signal strength at the receiver inputmay not be significantly stronger than the disturbance component present at thatpoint in the communication chain. (But for the above causes, the process ofcommunication would have been quite easy, if not trivial). In order to come upwith appropriate signal processing techniques, which enable us to extract thedesired signal from a distorted and noisy version of the transmitted signal, wemust clearly understand the nature and properties of the desired and undesiredsignals present at various stages of a communication system. In this lesson, webegin our study of this aspect of communication theory.
1
 
Complete statistical characterization of the noise will be given in chapter 3, namely, RandomSignals and Noise.
 
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Principles of Communication
1.2Signals physically exist in the time domain and are usually expressed as afunction of the time parameter
1
. Because of this feature, it is not too difficult, atleast in the majority of the situations of interest to us, to visualize the signalbehavior in the
Time Domain.
In fact, it may even be possible to view the signalson an oscilloscope. But equally important is the characterization of the signals inthe
Frequency Domain
or Spectral Domain. That is, we characterize the signalin terms of its various frequency components (or its
spectrum
). Fourier analysis(Fourier Series and Fourier Transform) helps us in arriving at the spectraldescription of the pertinent signals.
1.2 Periodic Signals and Fourier Series
Signals can be classified in various ways such as:a) Power or Energyb) Deterministic or Randomc) Real or Complexd) Periodic or Aperiodic etc.Our immediate concern is with periodic signals. In this section we shalldevelop the spectral description of these signals.
1.2.1 Periodic signals 
Def. 1.1:
A signal
( )
x
is said to be periodic if
( )
( )
p
x t x t +
=
, (1.1)for all
and some
.
 (
denotes the end of definition, example, etc.)
1
We will not discuss the multi-dimensional signals such as picture signals, video signals, etc.
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