The more tightly packed atoms, the higher the density and specific gravity. Among the mineralshaving the same chemical formula but different structures namely polymorphs, have denser packing if they were formed at higher pressures. Diamond (formed at highpressure, S.G.:3.5)and graphite (low pressure, S.G.: 2.23) both composed with Carbon, can be given as examples.
Minerals with non-metallic luster have average SG between 2.6-3.0, (
Hydrated and soft minerals have
Hard minerals with heavy elements (Sr, Ba, Fe, W, Cu, Ag, Pb, Hg) have
Minerals with metallic luster have
In solid solution series, there is a continuous change in
with change in chemical composition.(Eg.,
In polymorphous compounds those with closest atomic packing have higher
verage Specific Gravity:
It is possible to get a general idea about minerals¶ specific gravity by comparing their weights by hefting. The most common and abundant nonmetallic minerals,such as quartz, feldspar and calcite, have specific gravity between 2.65 and 2.5; hence thisinterval is approved as average specific gravity.
(Klein, C., Dutrow, B., (2008, pp: 33)).
Byhefting these minerals that have average specific gravity with a mineral having unknown S.G, wecan get a general idea.
etection of Specific Gravity:
In order to have accurate measurement of specific gravity,the mineral should be pure, homogenous and compact with no cracks or cavities within which bubbles or films of air could be trapped.(
. First of all, themineral weighted in air
and then it is weighted once more after putting it into the water. Bydoing so, the weight will be lesser because of water. So the difference between weight of themineral in the air and the weight of the water will be equal to the apparent loss of weight inwater or the equal volume of water. So it can be formulized by:
: The weight of the mineral in air.
The weight of the mineral in the water.There are two methods are used for determination of Specific Gravity:1.Jolly Balance(Hydrostatic weighing)2.Heavy liquids
Invented by the 19th-century German physicist Philipp von Jolly, it consists in itsusual form of a long, delicate, helical spring suspended by one end in front of a graduated scale.To the lower end of the spring is attached a weight pan and below that a small wire basket for samples. The difference in extension of the spring when the sample is suspended in air and in