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PL-SQL Interview Questions with Answers1. Describe the difference between a procedure, function and anonymous pl/sql block.Level: LowExpected answer : Candidate should mention use of DECLARE statement, a function mustreturn a value while a procedure doesn't have to.2. What is a mutating table error and how can you get around it?Level: IntermediateExpected answer: This happens with triggers. It occurs because the trigger is trying to updatea row it is currently using. The usual fix involves either use of views or temporary tables sothe database is selecting from one while updating the other.3. Describe the use of %ROWTYPE and %TYPE in PL/SQLLevel: LowExpected answer: %ROWTYPE allows you to associate a variable with an entire table row.The %TYPE associates a variable with a single column type.4. What packages (if any) has Oracle provided for use by developers?Expected answer: Oracle provides the DBMS_ series of packages. There are manywhich developers should be aware of such as DBMS_SQL, DBMS_PIPE, DBMS_TRANSACTION,DBMS_LOCK, DBMS_ALERT, DBMS_OUTPUT, DBMS_JOB, DBMS_UTILITY, DBMS_DDL,UTL_FILE. If they can mention a few of these and describe how they used them, even better.If they include the SQL routines provided by Oracle, great, but not really what was asked.5. Describe the use of PL/SQL tablesExpected answer: PL/SQL tables are scalar arrays that can be referenced by abinary integer. They can be used to hold values for use in later queriesor calculations. In Oracle 8 they will be able to be of the %ROWTYPE designation, or RECORD.6. When is a declare statement needed ?The DECLARE statement is used in PL/SQL anonymous blocks such as with stand alone, non-stored PL/SQL procedures. It must come first in a PL/SQL stand alone file if it is used.7. In what order should a open/fetch/loop set of commands in a PL/SQL block be implementedif you use the NOTFOUND cursor variable in the exit when statement? Why?Expected answer: OPEN then FETCH then LOOP followed by the exit when. If not specified inthis order will result in the final return being done twice because of the way the %NOTFOUNDis handled by PL/SQL.8. What are SQLCODE and SQLERRM and why are they important for PL/SQL developers?Expected answer: SQLCODE returns the value of the error number for the last errorencountered. The SQLERRM returns the actual error message for the last error encountered.They can be used in exception handling to report, or, store in an error log table, the error thatoccurred in the code. These are especially useful for the WHEN OTHERS exception.9. How can you find within a PL/SQL block, if a cursor is open?Expected answer: Use the %ISOPEN cursor status variable.10. How can you generate debugging output from PL/SQL?Expected answer: Use the DBMS_OUTPUT package. Another possible method is to just use theSHOW ERROR command, but this only shows errors. The DBMS_OUTPUT package can be usedto show intermediate results from loops and the status of variables as the procedure isexecuted. The new package UTL_FILE canalso be used.11. What are the types of triggers?
Expected Answer: There are 12 types of triggers in PL/SQL that consist of combinations of the BEFORE, AFTER, ROW, TABLE, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE andALL key words:BEFORE ALL ROW INSERTAFTER ALL ROW INSERTBEFORE INSERTAFTER INSERT etc. 
How do you convert a date to a string?What is an aggregate function?What is the dual table?What are cursors? Distinguish between implicit and explict cursors?Explain how cursors are used by Oracle?What is PL/SQL? Describe the block structure of PL/SQL?What is a nested subquery?What are the various types of queries ?Which of the following is not a schema object : Index, table, public synonym, trigger andpackage ?What is dynamic sql in oracle?What is the difference between a package, procedure and functionWhat is the difference between delete, drop and truncating a tableHow many triggers are supported in OracleAre you aware of FLASHBACK concept ? What is it?Describe oracle’s logical and physical structure?What is data dictionaryWhat is the use of control filesHow would store XML data in table ? What data type would be used for the columns?Difference between post and commit?Difference between commit and rollback?What are savepoints?Difference between a View and SynonymHow would you fetch system date from oracleWhat is the difference between primary key, unique key, foreign key?What is the difference between NO DATA FOUND and %NOTFOUNDWhat is cursor for loopWhat are cursor attributesWhat will you use in Query : IN or EXISTS? WhyExplain the difference between a data block, an extent and a segment.What's the difference between logical and physical I/O?What is an anonymous block?What is a PL/SQL collection?How can you tell if an UPDATE updated no rowsHow can you tell if a SELECT returned no rowsDB concepts:Physical Database Structure1. Datafiles2. Redo log files3. Control files.Logical Structures
1. TableSpaces2. DB Schema Objects.Segments,Extents and Data BlocksOracle background processes1. PMON2.SMON3.DBWR4.LGWR5.ARCH6.RECOA synonym is an alias for a table, view, sequence, create public synonyms that make the baseschema object available for general, system-wide use by any database user.Indexes are created to increase the performance of data retrieval
What is DDL, DML ? How are they different?2. What are different types of joins in SQL?3. How do you select unique rows using SQL?4. What is the difference between DELETE and TRUNCATE ?5. What is the difference between a "where" clause and a "having" clause?6. What is the difference between "procedure" and "function"?7. What is the difference between "translate" and "replace" ?8. How to remove duplicate records from a table?9. What is a "trigger"?10.What is the difference between "translate" and "replace"?11.What is a VIEW?12.What is the difference among "dropping a table", "truncating a table"and "deleting all records" from a table13.Explain new feature of 9i Database ? Explain new feature of 10g Database ?14.How to use DECODE function?15.What is “Group by” clause?16.What are cursors and what are the situations you will use them?17.What default packages are provided by Oracle?18.How do you debug a oracle procedure /function?19.How many triggers are available?20.How are procedures executed?• What are the different types of joins?• What is the difference between procedure and function• What is group by function• What is the difference between a where clause and having clause• What are indexes. Advantages of indexes• Triggers, how many triggers are available• What does “i” represent in Oracle8i / 9i

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