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Energized Bio-Green Water Supply Stimulated the Growth and Development of Green Peppers - Kim 2006

Energized Bio-Green Water Supply Stimulated the Growth and Development of Green Peppers - Kim 2006

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H
ORT
S
CIENCE
, V
OL
. 31(4), A
UGUST
1996564
Abstracts
Contributed Papers (Oral and Poster)ColloquiaWorkshops93rd Annual Conference of theAmerican Society for Horticultural Science
Lexington, Kentucky, USA6–10 October 1996
The Abstracts that follow are arranged by type of session (Orals first, then Posters, Workshops,Colloquia, Collegiate Branch Posters, CollegiateBranch Orals). The Poster abstract numbers cor-respond to the Poster Board number at which thePoster will be presented.To determine when a paper is to be presented,check the session number in the Program Sched-ule or the Conference at a Glance charts. TheAuthor presenting the paper is indicated by anasterisk.
001
Florida Red Ruffles and Florida Irish Lace: Two New Lance-leaf Caladium Cultivars
Gary J. Wilfret 
*, Univ. of Florida, IFAS, Gulf Coast Research & Education Center,5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, FL 34203Two lance-leaf caladium cultivars are to be released from the ornamental breed-ing program at the University of Florida. ‘Red Ruffles’, whose pedigree is Red Frillx (‘Red Frill’ x ‘Candidum Jr.’), has elongated medium red leaves with ruffledgreen margins. Plants are upright with strong petioles, have leaf blades 25 cmlong and 14 cm wide, and attain a height of 61 cm when grown in full sun in thefield. Plants have more leaves and are more cold tolerant than ‘Red Frill’, themajor red lance-leaf cultivar of commerce. Tuber yields of ‘Red Ruffles’ are simi-lar to ‘Red Frill’ but less than ‘Rosalie’, with production indices of 95.0, 97.8, and121.0, respectively. Foliage of ‘Red Ruffles’ is more upright and less likely toelongate under reduced light than the other cultivars. ‘Irish Lace’, an F
2
selectionfrom a cross of “Candidum Jr.’ x “Red Frill’, has elongated dark green leaves withheavily ruffled margins, which are etched with a thin red border. Leaf blades are26 cm long and 8 cm wide and have heavy substance. Plant height is 65 cm in thefield. Tuber yields of ‘Irish Lace’ are greater than ‘White Wing’, a major green/white cultivar. Use of a green caladium would be as a border or a mixture with redor white lance-leaf cultivars.
28 ORAL SESSION 1 (Abstr. 001–005)Breeding and Genetics–Floriculture I
 
H
ORT
S
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. 31(4), A
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1996 565
002
Breeding Aspects in
Alstroemeria 
L.
Marjo J. De Jeu 
*,
Silvan Kamstra, Anja Kuipers, Evert Jacobsen 
, The GraduateSchool of Experimental Plant Sciences, Dept. of Plant Breeding, WageningenAgricultural Univ., P.O. Box 386, NL-6700 AJ Wageningen, The NetherlandsThe genus
Alstroemeria 
L. is endemic in South America, mainly in Chile andBrazil. Crossing barriers of mainly postfertilization origin hampered widely inter-specific hybridization. Culturing the ovules 2 days after pollination in an hor-mone-free MS medium with 9% saccharose for 6 weeks and hereafter transfer toa MS medium with 3% saccharose gives germination of the fertilized ovules. In adiallel cross with 5 Chilean and 2 Brazilian species 39 combinations failed, whereasafter early ovule culture hybrid plants were obtained in 27 of the incongruouscombinations. The rate of success varied between 0.4%–22.5% depending onthe species combination. The hybrids were tested in in vitro stage for their truehybridity using isozyme analysis and/or genomic in situ hybridization of chro-mosomes (GISH). This method can easily be applied in hybrids between Chileanand Brazilian species. Backcrosses were made using the ovule culture again andin the combination
(A. aurea 
x
A. inodora) 
x
A. inodora 
plants were obtainedalthough the pollen fertility was very low (1%–5%). By using species-specificrepetitive probes in in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome specific patternswere obtained enabling us characterizing the backcross hybrids for their chromo-some constitution. By this method we can identify our breeding material for spe-cial traits linked with identified chromosomes.003
Isozyme Characterization in
Alstroemeria 
Species
Janice L. Stephens 
*
and Harrison G. Hughes 
, Dept. of Horticulture and Land-scape Architecture, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523Isozyme analysis was used to characterize and identify 24 species, hybrids,and color variants of
Alstroemeria 
, two plants of
Leontochir ovallei 
, and one plantof
Bomarea 
. A single technique was developed for the extraction of seven enzymesystems (PGM, PGI, 6-PGD, EST, ME, AAT, and LAP) that exhibited a high levelof polymorphism. Between 11 and 18 of the species and hybrids could be identi-fied uniquely for each of the first six enzyme systems. The final system, LAP, wastested on only 11 species and hybrids, and nine different patterns were identified.Using only three of the seven enzyme systems, it was possible to uniquely iden-tify all of the species and hybrids investigated.004
DNA Amplification Fingerprinting Used to Distinguish Seriesof Cutting, Seedling, and Ivy Leaf Geranium
Terri Woods Starman* 
 
and 
 
Shane Abbitt 
, Dept. of Ornamental Horticulture andLandscape Design, Inst. of Agriculture, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901-1071The objective was to distinguish between series of cultivars of
Pelargonium 
x
hortorum 
(zonal geranium),
Pelargonium 
hybrids (seed geranium), and
Pelar- gonium peltatum 
(ivy leaf geranium) using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF)demonstrating the utility of DAF for patent protection to prevent infringement ofinventor’s rights. Leaf tissue of 10 plants of each cultivar of seedling geraniumwas bulked for DNA extraction, and cutting and ivy geranium cultivars were bulksof five plants of each cultivar. Isolated DNA from different cultivars of a serieswere bulked together in their respective series. Seedling geranium series includedDynamo, Glamour, Multibloom, Orbit, Pinto, and Ringo 2000. Cutting geraniumseries included Designer and Showcase. Ivy geraniums were from the Guillougroup. Amplification was with one of two octamer primers, followed by reamplifyingwith one of four different mini hairpin primers. Gels were visually scored for pres-ence or absence of bands. The four primers generated 336 bands. The averagenumber of bands (_1000 bp) per primer was 40. Twenty percent of bands werepolymorphic and distinguished between each series of cultivars. Genetic rela-tionships were evaluated by SAHN cluster analysis based on the distance estima-tor of Dice using the NTSYS-pc program (Numerical taxonomy and multivariateanalysis system, version 1.8). Series were grouped according to species. Seed-ling geraniums were in one large group, the two cutting geraniums were groupedtogether and the ivy leaf geraniums were a separate branch.005
Resistance of Pelargonium Species to the Fungal Pathogen
Botrytis cinerea 
Michael S. Uchneat* and Richard Craig 
, Dept. of Horticulture, 102 Tyson Build-ing, University Park, PA 16802-4200
Botrytis cinerea 
is an economically important fungal pathogen of
Pelargo- nium 
species. We are currently studying this plant–pathogen interaction to iden-tify mechanisms of host resistance. Our ultimate objective is to develop commer-cial
Pelargonium 
genotypes with enhanced resistance to this pathogen. Thoughall stages of production may be affected by this pathogen, we are investigatingfoliar and floral resistance of mature plants. Through simple assays, over 200genotypes have been evaluated for foliar resistance, and more than 100 geno-types have been evaluated for floral resistance. Resistant and susceptible controlgenotypes have been identified for diploid and tetraploid
P.
×
hortorum 
and
P.peltatum 
; these genotypes are being investigated to elucidate mechanisms of re-sistance. The diploid ivy accession 86-23-1 and the tetraploid zonal geranium‘Fox’ have the greatest foliar resistance among the genotypes evaluated. The dip-loid
P.
×
hortorum 
‘Ben Franklin’ has the greatest floral resistance among theevaluated genotypes. Foliar and floral resistance appear to be inherited as sepa-rate traits. Foliar resistance is manifested as a two day delay in symptom expres-sion when compared to susceptible genotypes. Foliar resistant accession 86-23-1 has a cuticle with 150% the mass of other
Pelargonium 
genotypes. This differ-ence may be responsible for the observed resistance. Cuticle mass does not ap-pear to be important in floral resistance.006
Inheritance of Specific Flower Colors in
Petunia hybrida 
R.J. Griesbach* 
, Floral and Nursery Plant Research, U.S. National Arboretum,USDA–ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350The biochemistry of flowers is very complex, depending not only on the spe-cific anthocyanin present but also on vacuolar pH, presence of metal ions, type ofco-pigment present, and the molar ratio of co-pigment to anthocyanin. Becauseof the wide array of different flower colors,
Petunia hybrida 
is an excellent modelsystem to study the genetic interaction of all of these factors. The segregation ofthe different flower colors in an F
2
population from a red x violet outcross couldbe explained through the combined inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation andpH. The inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation was controlled by two indepen-dent genes (
hf 
and
Mf 
) that followed simple Mendelian genetics. The inheritanceof pH was more complex, being controlled by two independent co-dominant genes(
Ph1
and
Ph2 
). Linkage of the various pH and anthocyanin genes prevented theexpression of all of the potential gene combinations.
29 ORAL SESSION 2 (Abstr. 007–014)Propagation–Cross-commodity
007
Seed Germination of Atlantic White Cedar as Influenced byStratification, Temperature, and Light
Laura G. Jull*, Frank A. Blazich, and L.E. Hinesley 
, Dept. of Horticultural Science,North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695-7609Cones of two provenances (Wayne Co., N.C., And Escambia Co., Ala.) ofAtlantic white cedar [
Chamaecyparis thyoides 
(L.) B. S. P.], were collected Fall1994. Cones were dried for 2 months, followed by seed extraction and storage at4
°
C for 6 months. Seeds were graded and stratified (moist-prechilled) for 0, 30,60, or 90 days. Following stratification, seeds were placed at 25
°
C or 8/16 hourthermoperiods of 25
°
/15
°
C or 30
°
/20
°
C with daily photoperiods at each tem-perature of 0, 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 24 h. At the conclusion of a 30-day germina-tion period, the Alabama provenance exhibited greater germination than the NorthCarolina provenance for all treatments (74% vs. 46%). There were no significantdifferences between 25
°
/15
°
C and 30
°
/20
°
C with regard to total percent germi-nation for both provenances. Germination was lowest at 25
°
C for each prov-enance. In some cases, however, there were no significant differences in germi-nation of the North Carolina provenance when stratified for 60 or 90 days andgerminated at 30/20
°
C or 25
°
C (61% vs. 63%). There was a highly significantquadratic response to stratification for cumulative percent germination for both
 
H
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S
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. 31(4), A
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1996566
provenances. The North Carolina provenance required 90 days stratification tomaximize germination (66%) in contrast to the Alabama provenance, which onlyneeded 30 days (80%). Seeds of both provenances did not exhibit an obligatelight requirement. However, photoperiods
1/2 h increased germination greatlyover seeds in darkness (29% vs. 62%).008
Pretransplant Temperature Regime and Container Size AlterStrawberry Plant Morphology
Eric B. Bish*, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and Craig K. Chandler 
, Horticultural SciencesDept., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0690Containerized strawberry transplants offer an alternative to problematic bare-root transplants, which often have variability in flowering and vegetative vigor.Containerized transplants were propagated in three different container cell sizes(75, 150, and 300 cm
3
) and grown at two different temperature regimes for 2weeks prior to planting (25/15 and 35/25
°
C day/night). Bare-root transplantsfrom Massachusetts and Florida were graded into small, medium, and large plantsbased on crown size (8, 12, and 16 mm respectively). Plug transplants grown at25/15
°
C had greater root dry weights than transplants grown at 35/25
°
C. Rootimaging analysis (MacRHIZO) showed that the differences in dry weight were dueto root area, not root tissue density. Crown dry weight increased with increasingcell size. Plug transplants grown at 25/15
°
C flowered earlier and had greaterproduction than any other treatment. The 75 cm
3
cell size grown at 35/25
°
C pro-duced greater December strawberry production than larger cell sizes at the sametemperature regime; however, the 75 cm
3
cell size had decreased January straw-berry production while the larger cell sizes had increased production. Larger plugcell sizes had significantly greater production than smaller plugs throughout theseason, whereas larger bare-roots had greater production only early in the sea-son. Containerized plug transplants therefore offers a viable alternative to prob-lematic bare-root transplants.009
Using a Rockwool Plug System In Vitro On
Amelanchier 
,
Cer- cis 
, Kalmia, Cherry, and Apple
Chin-Chang Chu* and Kenneth W. Mudge 
, Dept. of Floriculture and OrnamentalHorticulture, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853Rockwool plugs were placed in Magenta G-7 boxes (Sigma) and then auto-claved at 121
°
C for 20 min. Fifty milliliters of cool autoclaved liquid medium waspoured into Magenta G-7 boxes in aseptic conditions before microcuttings of
Amelanchier 
,
Cercis 
 
canadensis 
, cherry, and apple were transferred. Murashigeand Skoog medium (MS, M-5519, Sigma) containing 30 g·L
–1
sucrose, and with/out 1 ppm of NAA, pH 5.5 were used in all experiments. All cultures were incu-bated at 23
±
1
°
C under a 16-hour lighting period with a light intensity of about4000 lux of white fluorescent light. Microcuttings of
Amelanchier 
,
Cercis 
, Apple,and cherry rooted in rockwool plugs in 3 weeks after transfer and were ready to beout-planted in 6 weeks. Out-planted plantlets were leached with tap water andpotted in 4-inch pots with Metrolite mix, then, placed in mist bench under 50%shade for 2 weeks before taking to bench with full sun light. The survival was100%. Conditions and growth rate of rockwool-plug-rooted plantlets were muchbetter than those plantlets rooted in agar medium. Rockwool plug plantlets had2–3 flushes of growth before dormancy in greenhouse and were ready to be plantedin the field or garden in 8 months after out-planting. Using a rockwool plug sys-tem simplifies out-planting procedure, produces better plantlets, increases out-planting survival, and greatly shorten time needed from out-planting to field-plantable size. This system is a very useful system for difficult-to-root woodyornamentals.010
Propagation of GF
677
Peach Rootstock by Stem Cuttings
Osama M.AI-Tamimi and Mostafa M.QrunBeh 
*, Dept. of Plant Production, Fac-ulty of Agriculture, Univ. of Jordan, Amman, JordanThe rooting ability of GF
677
peach rootstock by hardwood (H), semihardwood(SH), and softwood (S) stem cuttings collected January, February, May, and No-vember, treated with various IBA concentrations 0, 500,1000,2000, and 3000ppm was studied. H cuttings collected in January and treated with 2000 ppmIBA caused significant increase in rooting (62%–5%). In addition, the SH cut-tings prepared February and treated with 1000 or 2000 ppm IBA gave 42.5%. TheMay experiment resulted in low rooting percentage where H cuttings treated with500 ppm IBA gave 10% rooting. In October, SH cuttings with 1000 or 3000 ppmIBA gave the highest rooting percentage (60%), while in November 90% rootingwas obtained in H cuttings treated with 3000 ppm. Regardless of type of cutting,IBA at 1000, 2000, or 3000 ppm was better for rooting the GF
677
than at 500 ppm.However, irrespective of IBA concentration, H and SH cuttings gave significantlyhigh rooting percentages. On the other hand, best rooting was obtained when thestem cuttings of GF
677
(regardless of wood type) were collected in November.Wounding base of the cutting of GF
677
improved rooting ability.011
Influence of Stock Plant Carbohydrate and Nitrogen Contenton Rooting Stem Cuttings of Hedged Loblolly Pine
D.B. Rowe* 
1
, F.A. Blazich 
1
, D.M. Pharr 
1
, and F.C. Wise 
,
1
Dept. of HorticulturalScience, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695-7609;
2
Westvaco ForestResearch, Box 1950, Summerville, SC 29484Containerized, 2.5-year-old, hedged stock plants of four, full-sib families ofloblolly pine (
Pinus taeda 
L.) were fertilized daily with a complete nutrient solu-tion containing 10, 25, 40, 55, or 70 ppm N, which resulted in a range of stockplant soluble carbohydrate (SCHO) and tissue N levels. SCHOs included
myo 
-inositol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose. Nitrogen concentrations andSCHO : N ratios ranged from 1.23% to 2.24% and 16:1 to 29:1, respectively.Softwood cuttings were taken in May and July 1995 and placed under intermit-tent mist. May cuttings rooted at significantly greater percentages than July cut-tings (60% vs. 34%). Averaged over all N treatments, the best rooting family(56%) contained the highest tissue concentration of SCHOs (465 mg
g
–1
dryweight) and had the highest SCHO : N ratio (26:1), whereas, the poorest rootingfamily (39%), exhibited the lowest level of SCHOs (357 mg
g
–1
dry weight) andthe lowest SCHO : N ratio (21:1). Rooting exhibited a quadratic response in re-gards to N fertilization levels and tissue SCHO concentrations. For both rootingtrials, maximum rooting (83%) was noted for May cuttings taken from stock plantsof one family fertilized with 40 ppm N, which corresponded to a tissue N concen-tration of 1.95% and a SCHO : N ratio of 22:1.012
The Effect of Stock Plant Water Potential, Auxin ApplicationMethod, and a Polyamines on Rooting Walnut Cuttings
J.R. McKenna* and E.G. Sutter,
Dept. of Pomology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA95616Experiments with field-grown hybrid Paradox (
Juglans hindsii 
x
J. Regia) 
walnut trees were conducted to assess the effects of stock plant water status,auxin application method, and the addition of spermine on adventitious root for-mation in stem cuttings. A 2-fold increase in rooting was noted whensemihardwood cuttings were collected from dry (midday
Ψ
w
= –1.3 MPa) stockplants compared to the same trees six days later when fully hydrated (midday
Ψ
w
= –0.6 MPa). Spermine, when combined with potassium indolebutyric acid (KIBA)and applied as a quick dip, enhanced the rooting percentage in hardwood cut-tings (54%) compared to controls treated with KIBA alone (18%). Spermine hadno effect when it was applied together with KIBA using a toothpick application,producing 65% rooting compared to controls which had 75% rooting. By itself,spermine had no effect on rooting. The toothpick method for applying rootingcompounds resulted in significantly higher rooting percentages for hardwoodcuttings, but not for semihardwood cuttings. Combining spermine with KIBA hadno effect on rooting of semihardwood cuttings.013
Factors Causing Losses of Rooted Cuttings of Olive Propagatedunder Mist and Ways of Its Prevention
A. Talaie* and M. Zarrabi 
, Univ. of Tehran, Tehran, IranTo study the reasons for the losses of rooted semihardwood cuttings of olivepropagated under the mist method, a 2-year experiment was carried out at theHorticulture Dept. of Faculty of Agriculture of the Tehran Univ. In this experiment,semihardwood cuttings of olive (Zard cultivar) in four different media heavy-(A
l
), semi-heavy(A
2
), medium (A
3
), and light (A
4
), all disinfected with two differ-ent concentrations of Captan were used. Root growth stages with low, medium,and light densities in spring and fall were evaluated. The results indicate thatthere are the least losses in semi-heavy (A
2
) and medium (A
3
) media. This couldbe the result of a better ventilation conditions in these media, which activates Nand Ca and finally accelerates the better growth conditions in all young rootedcuttings. On the other hand, it was clear that inadequate disinfection will result inlosses of rooted cuttings, and using Captan at 2 ppm gives the best result. This

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