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Published by Iroshan Priyantha
This is a research paper based on the concept of Geotagging describing the history, features & usage & future directions of the concept of geotagging.
This is a research paper based on the concept of Geotagging describing the history, features & usage & future directions of the concept of geotagging.

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Published by: Iroshan Priyantha on Jan 30, 2011
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V.S.I.P Raja
 Faculty of Information TechnologyUniversity of Moratuwairoshan_priyantha@yahoo.com
 In the web community, revealing locationbased information is an important event. Identifyingcertain location in the world by its geographicalcoordinates & use that information to the web context is
an emerging technology in the today’s world. This
technology used to express location based information inthe web is called geo-tagging. In the web, geo-tagging isbecoming increasingly used in photo sharing, blogging,mapping, location searching, etc like media. Thistechnique allows users to add meta-data including geo-location information to the media. Once the media isgeo-tagged, many other web applications can use themto implement & enhance various systems for user convenience. GPS technology is used to geo-tag mediaaccording to the global location & many devices areavailable nowadays in the world with flexibility & user  friendly usage. .
ith the development of the technology, theuse of computer based systems & devices havebeen rapidly increased, because of thereliability & efficiency of those systems.People do various researches on informationtransaction & communication in worldwide,using the so-called sophisticated technology.When considering the information processingover the internet, sometimes people need toknow certain information regarding thelocation. Geo-tagging is one of the majorresearch areas that people are investigating forhaving a global data communication. The termgeo-tagging can be defined as the process of adding geographical related data to variousmedia like images, photos, videos, blogs, RSSfeeds, etc. they are in the form of geospatialmetadata. The metadata includes latitude &longitude coordinates of a certain media. Notonly the location coordinates, but also caninclude details like placenames, a short description of the media,ownership, taken by, etc. geo-tagging can helpusers to find wide variety of location specificinformation & this information can be used toweb enabled services to provide location basednews, web reports, maps, etc [17]. Geotaggingbasically has two major steps to follow. Atfirst the toponym should be recognized &identified separately. Then need to assign eachtoponym the correct geographical coordinatesamong possible interpretations [1]. Many webbased applications use Geotagging for certainpurposes. Web sites like Flickr use Geotaggingto tag the photos in various locations by theglobal coordinates facilitating users with manysophisticated tools [2, 13, 17]. Picasa isanother application which is similar to theFlickr [19]. Other applications such as GoogleEarth, Panaroma, and TripperMap use thistechnology & facilitate users to geotag theirimages. As the current web trend is goingtogether with Geotagging applications, Iselected this area as the research area for theindependent study.The following sections of this documentprovide more information about the concept of Geotagging. Section two provides an overviewof Geotagging. Section three is about majorresearches in Geotagging & major applications& the development environment are discussedin section four & five. Section six is aboutfuture directions of the area & discussion of the paper is in section seven. Finally, myopinion in Geotagging is expressed in sectioneight together with the acknowledgment.W
Today the data communication through theWWW is becoming a major trend & almost allthe industries are now moving forward withweb. When communicating over the countriesthe location or the global positioning is veryimportant for recognizing certain data. Peopleneed these data for knowledge, job related,research, etc. therefore the concept of Geotagging is employed in order to tag mediaaccording to the global positioning. Then onecan use the technology to tag a media likeimage according to the geo-location & publishin the web. Then some other person may needthe location based information of the veryimage & thanks for Geotagging, he is given allgeo related data. Therefore web users arefacilitate with tools to interact with mediamore efficiently.There are many researches are carried out invarious areas based on Geotagging. Mainlymany researches are based on Geotaggingimages & sharing them in the web [1]. In thatcase locating the images based on the globalposition [1], identifying & tagging the imageby the content [6, 8], indexing images in adatabase according to the scene & based onthat making models [11], propagation of geotagged image relations [21], like areas aremainly considered by the researches. Anotheraspect is that Geotagging media with locallexicons [16]. In this approach, the location isconsidered more specifically according to thelocal location & tag the media as per the locallexicons [16].When considering about location based data,web pages also have a great deal of concern.In a web page the use of location basedinformation is common thing & Geotaggingthese data is considered in some researches.Identifying text based differences in the webpages, identifying the major area or the focusof the web page is focused on this research &by that the researches are able to point out theimportance of location based text in web pages[6]. Mining cultural differences from a largeamount of geotagged images us another issuethat is currently being worked on by theresearches [10]. Mapping the photos by thecontent [4] is another area which theresearches are looking forward. Geotaggingfor tourism industry is an emerging technology
in today’s world
. Mapping human travelpriorities [11], analyzing geotagged images fortourist preferred places [12, 15]. Anotherinteresting research area which people lookingat these days is mobile Geotagging [23]. Asmobile devices are very commonly available& cheap to use, adding geographicalinformation to communicate over the web maybe a value added application for mobiledevices.As Geotagging is a rapid developing & usefularea, many web applications use thistechnology. Flickr is one of the most famousphoto sharing web sites in the world, whichfacilitate its users with Geotagging [13].Complex algorithms are used to tag the imagesaccording to the geo location, but users aregiven very user friendly environment tointeract with the application [2, 17]. Anothervast growing application is Picasa which isowned by Google. Picasa is a photo sharingapplication which allows users to tag images,videos, using its global position [19]. Mostwidely known & used application whichrecently employed the Geotagging is GoogleEarth. The geotagged images can be used withGoogle Earth to indicate each location of theworld. Google Spread sheets, paintmap.com[20], Communitywalk [14], panaroma.com aresome other applications which allow users togeotag images, paints, pictures as preferred.The technology used to tag the mediaaccording to the global position is called GPS& many devices are equipped with GPSreceivers [3, 22] in order to track the location& tag the media. With the rapid developmentof the information technology, the devices &applications are also become sophisticated touse.
Major Researches in Geotagging
As mentioned above, Geotagging is a vastgrowing area in web environment; thereforemany researches are carried out in variousareas. Each research is done with the purposeof introducing a new concept of Geotagging &help to implement new applications as well asenhancing the existing applications based ontheir findings. Many researches are done onthe basis of integrating Geotagging intoexisting systems or new systems so that oneapplication is multi-capable. This sectiondiscussed about the major researches carriedout by others with regard to Geotagging.
Geotagging Images & Sharing
Most of the researches are based onGeotagging images at this point & whenGeotagging, the location, coordinates, content,time taken, etc are important. These are calledmetadata & there are three types of metadatadescriptions as RDF, EXIF & XML. Moredetails regarding these metadata are discussedunder the development environment section.
Geotagging Using RDF
Among this one research is carried out onGeotagging images using RDF [1]. In thisapproach, the spatial relations between nearbyimages are discovered by means of inferenceover their RDF descriptions. An interface iscreated to interact & users can tag images,metadata manually & share. When amechanism is provided to relate the imagesaccordingly, then the landscape & maps can betransformed into multilayered virtual space. Sothat the users can move through the time likefrom day time to midnight, from one event toanother, one place to other, etc [1]. Thatfacilitates the user with massive informationregarding a place & efficient navigation.Figure 1 shows the multi-layered mapinterface.Figure 1 - multi-layered map interface.The RDF data are selected such that therelation between the data can be securedaccordingly. Here Dublin Core (DC) standardwas used to describe author, title, date, time &annotation about location. Latitude &longitude is defined in both degree notation &degree-minutes-seconds (DMS) notation. Bydefining an image like this, whole informationregarding the image can be covered so that theflexibility of using the image in variousapplications will be increased.
Distributed Environments
The distributed environment is composed of aset of clients & each client exposes its photocollections to its peers using the SPARQL(Query Language for RDF). Figure 2 showsthe connection between clients & when aclient requests pictures that have similarcoverage in geo-coding, SPARQL is used toextract the related data. The metadata has allthe information regarding each image so that itevaluates the metadata & creates a virtualphoto collection. Each relationship is added tothe RDF model & eventually client will haveall the corresponding related images from thepeers [1].

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