299by red algae which build a rigid framework.Branching corals and head corals indicate a shallowwater environment just below wave base and abovewave base, respectively (James and Bourque, 1992).Therefore, the massive to head-coral framestoneindicates a higher energy environment thanbranching-coral bafflestone. This depositionalenvironment is symbolized by red color in Figures 3and 4. Some of encrusting red algae have undergonerecrystalization into bladed calcites with crystallength until 20 cm. These calcites are well known as
by villagers. Some of the massive andhead corals have also undergone recrystalizationwhich results in difficulties in differentiating betweenframestone, wackestone or mudstone. The majorcharacteristic of framestone is a massive structure,which is very dense and hard in hand specimenswhereas wackestone and mudstone are parallel-bedded in sedimentary structure and lighter and softerin hand specimens.
– characterized by encrusting-red-algalbindstone which is identified as having digitate,rhodolith and stromatolite structure. Thin sectionsreveal that the red algae are commonly in symbiosiswith encrusting forams. Because of the dominance of encrusting red algae and lack of corals, this lithofaciesis interpreted as reef mound. This facies isdistinguished from reef by a dominance of encrustingorganisms (James, 1983). The reef mound faciesindicates an environment below base of largemetazoan growth and above the lower limit of moundgrowth (James and Bourque, 1992). Therefore, reef mound indicates a deeper environment than reef. Thisdepositional environment is symbolized by violetcolor in Figures 3 & 4. Some of encrusting-red-algalbindstone has undergone recrystalization and isdifficult to identify in the field. Fresh outcrops andthin sections can help identify the presence of encrusting red algae and differentiate betweenbindstone and other lithofacies.
– characterized by branching-coral-fragment rudstone to floatstone. Coral fragments areidentified and interspersed in a wackestone tomudstone matrix. The fragments indicate products of both biological and physical breakdowns of coral reef and a depositional environment closely adjacent to thereef. This facies is distinguished from reef by thedominance of fragments rather than frame builders.This depositional environment is symbolized by bluecolor in Figures 5 to 10.
Near reef mound
– characterized by rhodolithrudstone to floatsone. Rhodoliths are identified asfragments, sand to pebble size and interspersed inpackstone. The fragments indicate results of biological and physical breakdown of encrusting-red-algal reef mound. The packstone matrix containsrobust and thin, larger forams especially
, small benthonicforams (Milliolid forams), phylloid algae debris andmollusks. Near reef mound facies is distinguishedfrom reef mound by the dominance of fragments toinsitu, encrusting organisms. The abundance of rhodolith fragments indicates that this environment isclose to reef mound. This depositional environment issymbolized by blue color in Figures 5-10.
– is characterized by foraminiferal-mixed-skeletal packstone, wackestone to mudstoneand this facies dominates in the study area. The inter-reef lagoonal facies is a deeper environment of deposition located among patch reefs (Jordan andAbdullah, 1992; Jordan, 1998). This facies containsmicrofauna including larger forams, planktonicforams, phylloid algae debris, red algae debris, smallbenthonic forams, mollusks and echinoderms. Theshallow inter-reef lagoonal facies is white in colorand contains abundant robust and thin larger forams(i.e.
), whereas the deep inter-reef lagoon contains abundant planktonic forams(i.e.
Orbulina, Globigerina, Globorotalia
).Argillaceous content also increases basinward andalters rock color to be brownish white. Thisdepositional environment is symbolized by yellowcolor in Figures 3 to 10. Parallel bedding structuredominates this facies and indicates a low energyenvironment below wave base. Un-continuousreddish to brownish clay stringers with 2 – 10 cm inthickness are usually found parallel and inserted intothe bedding.
Four sequences of carbonate rocks are identified inthe field. Sequence boundaries bounding eachsequence can be traced in outcrops and show twodifferent physical expressions. The first type isrepresented by an irregular surface and orunconsolidated lithoclasts. In the case whereunconsolidated lithoclasts are absent, the irregularsurface is directly overlain by the following sequence.The unconsolidated lithoclasts range in size from 2mm to 50 cm and have numerous and large inter-